Explore BrainMass

Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

Volume and pressure problems

6. One of the treatments for gangrene and "the bends," is hyperbaric oxygenation. This occurs in a chamber in which oxygen is used at higher-than-normal pressures. How many grams of oxygen are required to fill a 4.50 x 103 liter hyperbaric chamber at a pressure of 225 cm Hg and at 62° F? If the same quantity of oxygen was pumpe

Organic chemistry problems

1.What is the change in pH when 0.005 moles of HCl is added to 0.100 L of a buffer solution that is 0.100 M in CH3CO2H and 0.100 M NaCH3CO2? The Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10 -5. 2. What is the resulting pH when 0.005 moles of KOH is added to 0.100 L of a buffer solution that is 0.100 M in H2PO4- and 0.100 M HPO4 2- and the

Organic Chemistry: Synthesizing Compounds

Please answer the following questions. Draw the synthesizing of the compounds. 1. Starting with toluene, prepare 2-bromo-4-nitrotoluene. 2. Starting with toluene, prepare 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid. 3. Starting from benzene, prepare p=chlorostyrene. 4. p-Bromotoluene reacts with potassium amide to give a mixture of m- and

Finding unknown compounds

11. A low-melting solid A was isolated, which combustion analysis showed had composition C9H10O. The substance gave a precipitate when treated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution. Furthermore, when reacted with iodoform reagent, a yellow precipitate of CHI3 was observed. Acidification of the alkaline solution from the iodo

Synthesis of cyclic carboxylic acid anhydrides

I am having trouble understanding why when maelic acid is heated to about 100 C it forms maelic anhydride but fumaric acid requires a much higher temp 250-300 before it dehydrates. Then in addition it only forms maleic anhydride?

Amines Acidification with Ammonia

If you add 15 drops of 6M HCl (a source of H+) to a mixture of 10 drops of 6 M ammonia solution and 1 dropperful of demineralized water, what would the following be: 1) pH 2) solubility 3) observed chemical reactions that would occur If you were to re-basify the solution by adding 20 drops of 6 M NaOH (which is a source of

Solubility in hexane

Is methanol soluble in hexane? Why or why not? Is 1-propanol soluble in hexane? Why or why not? What is the sketched formula for ethyl methyl ester and is it an isomer of butanoic acid? If not, what is the isomer of butanoic acid?

Stretching Vibration Calculations

I need some help with these acid and base chemistry questions. 1. The Anti-symmetric -CH2-CO-O Stretching Vibration in carboxylic acid is heavily mixed with in plane bending mode of the OH group. In alcohol these two vibrations seldom show evidence of mechanical coupling. Explain. 2. Conjugation of the functional group i

Hydration and Hydrogenation Reactions

Give and name the products when 3-t-butyl 2,4-dimethyl 1-hexene reacts with the following (assume the proper catalysts are present): 1) Water 2) Hydrogen gas

Bromine addition to trans-cinnamic acid

During bromine addition to trans-cinnamic acid, why is it necessary to maintain excess bromine in the reaction mixture and how can you tell there is an excess of bromine?

Organic chemistry reaction in the presence of Ag2O

When (S)-2-bromopropanoic acid [(S)-CH3CHBrCO2H] reacts with concentrated sodium hydroxide, the product formed (after acidification) is (R)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid, commonly known as (R)-lactic acid. This is the normal stereochemical result for an SN2 reaction. However, when the same reaction is carried out with a low concentr

Oxidation Reduction

I need help with oxidation and reduction for organic compounds and calculation of oxidation levels. Please see attachment. --- 1. Label each transformation below as oxidation, reduction or neither oxidation nor reduction. Show evidence (calculation of oxidation levels) to support you answer. 2. Rank the following compoun

Detection of Strong Acids

Which would you expect to be the stronger acid? a) B-chloroethyl or ethyl alcohol? b) isopropyl alcohol or hexafluroisopropyl alcohol? c) n-propyl alcohol or glycerol, HOCH2CHOHCH2OH?(2 should be subscripts) d) Which alcohol of each pair would you expect to be the stronger nucleophile?

stereoisomers of (S)-adenosylmethionine

How many stereoisomers of (S)-adenosylmethionine are theoretically possible? Enter your response as the integernumber. The higher PKa value corresponds to the { STRONGER / weaker } acid. State which one is right. Calculate the degree of unsaturation number of missing H2 units relative to an alkane for the Compound with


When aminobenzene is subjected to standard nitration conditions {HONO2/(HO)2SO2} poor yields 1-amino-3 itrobenzene are obtained. Briefly explain this result using resonance molecular structure formulas to support your arguments.

3 Lab Questions

1. Think and describe what you would do in each of the following situations which could happen in your laboratory. a. You are working at your station and the 100-mL round-bottom flask in which you are running a reaction in ether solvent suddenly catches fire. b. The person working across the laboratory bench from you allows

Physical Properties - Solubility, pH and Melting Point

Lower solubility in water: Glucose or stearic acid Lower pH in solution: Butanoic acid or 1,5-butanedioic acid Higher melting point: Trans-CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH or Cis-(same compund) Please briefly explain each so I can understand apply it in the future.

Draw Glutamic Acid and Glutamine

Draw out the complete structural formula for glutamic acid and glutamine. One has a pI of 5.65 and the other has a pI of 3.22. GIve a reason for the differences in the isoelectric points of these two compounds.


The IUPAC name gives rum smell O = (double bond) H-C-O-C-C gives pineapple smell O = (double bond) C-C-C-C-O-C-C

Phenol & straight chain alcohol

The compound C6H5OH is a phelol, and C6H13OH is a straight chain alcohol. State if they will react with i) Potassium hydroxide & ii) acetic acid Give the equations for the reactions.

Considering Wittig Reaction

Consider aspects of the Wittig Reaction as well as the fact that Ph3P is nucleophilic. With those thoughts in mind, explain using a mechanism, the observation of the following result of the indicated reaction... Please see attached.

IUPAC and Reactions

1. Name each drawn compound (attached) by IUPAC. 2. Provide the product of each attached reaction in the box next to it.

IUPAC and SEAr Reactions

Name by IUPAC, Number in order of reactivity (1 = fastest, 2 = next, etc.) each series to SEAr, Indicate with arrow(s) all the positions on each rng where appreciable SEAr reaction would occur. See attached problems.

Aromatic Compounds and Conjugated Ring Systems

Both naphthalene and azulene have 10 pie electrons and are aromatic. Pentalene is apparently antiaromatic and is unstable even at -100 degrees C. Heptalene has been made but it adds bromine, it reacts with acids, and it is not planar. Is Huckle's rule applicable to these compounds? If so, explain their lack of aromaticity.

Identify Solid Unknown Using IR Spectra

Attached to this problem is an IR spectra of an unknown which is known to be a solid and after a few solubility and other test I think that it is a carboxylic acid. I needed some one else to verify. Please label peaks and give the name of compound.

N,N-dimethylaniline reagent

The formation of an azo compound is a slow reaction, but that rate can be increased by raising the pH of the solution. Why is this necessary? In other words, how does the pH of the solution affect the reactivity of the N,N-dimethylaniline reagent.