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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

An Equilibrium Problem

C2H5CO2H(l) + C3H7OH(l) ---> C2H5COOC3H7(l) + H2O(l) 18.5 mL propanoic acid are mixed with 19.0 mL n-propanol to produce n-propyl propanoate when heated and distilled. At room temperature, the equilibrium constant, Keq is approximately 3. Calculate the number of moles of reactants and products expected in the equilibrium

Expected Yield of Propanoic Acid Reaction

C2H5CO2H(l) + C3H7OH (l) ---> C2H5COOC3H7(l) + H2O When 18.5 mL of propanoic acid and 19.0 mL of n-propanol are mixed together, calculate the volume of water expected if the yield of the ester were 100% Other Data: Boiling point of 1-propyl propanoate - 122 degrees C Volume of water collected - 3.31 mL Weight of produ

Synthesis from Benzene, Toluene or Alcohols

Question 1) Outline the steps of each of the following compounds from benzene, toluene and alcohol of four carbons or fewer. 1) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol 2) 2-phenyl-2-propanol 3) 3-hexanol 4) 4-ethyl-4-heptanol 5) 2-Bromo-2-methylhexene 6) 1,2-diphenyl-2-propanol 7) 1-p-bromophenyl-1-phenyl-1-propanol

10 Questions About Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds

The reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of acid is termed Fischer esterification. 1) the nucleophile in this reaction is: _________ 2) compound C functions as ____________ in the reaction a) neutralizer b) catalyst c) solvent d) base scavenger 3) Fischer esterification is an exampl

Reaction Questions about Acyl Substitutions

Please see the attached file. 1) What is the order of increasing acidity for the following compound (least to most)? 2) What is the order of decreasing reactivity towards nucleophilic acyl substitution for the carboxylic acid derivatives (most reactive first)? 3) the reaction is described as a ___________ process

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Titrations

1. When you mix 10.0ml of ascorbic acid standard solution in the flask with 25ml water, 2ml of 6M acetic acid solution and 1ml of starch solution, it is necessary to know the exact final volume of this solution to get an accurate determination of ascorbic acid in the titrations of test solutions? Explain. Hint: Do the volumes o

Percent Recoveries in Recrystallization Lab Experiment

I have a chemistry problem. In lab we did the experiment Recrystallization. I would like to know if my values that I got in the laboratory are sensible and my percentage recovery. The mass of my impure aspirin was 0.250mg. My volume of solvent used for my impure aspirin was 3.25ml. I got this value from my 2.50ml of water used a

Methane and Methanol Difference

The difference between methane and methanol is an -OH group replacement of a H group. What difference does the -OH group make in this case? Whats the potential for exposure, the most likely exposure routes, and the toxicity effects with it?

Reduction Mechanisms for Formadehyde

Given the following: methanoic acid (CH2O2) + heat + reduction = CH2O (formaldeyhde vapor) ethanoic acid (C2H4O2) + heat + reduction = CH3O2 (acetaldehyde vapor) 1) Is it reasonable to assume that these aqueous organic acids when heated to vapor will in fact lose an oxygen and convert to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde vapo

Chemical Tests for Distinguishing Similar Compounds

2. Describe simple chemical tests that would enable you to distinguish between the following sets of compounds. Write equations for any chemical reactions: (a) dinitrogen monoxide (nitrous oxide), ammonia, and nitrogen (b) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen monoxide (c) dilute hydrochloric acid, deuterium oxide, a

Why Do I Require More CaCO3 to Raise pH than Predicted?

If you can remember back to a discussion and inquiry we exchanged last week concerning the use of sodium carbonate vs. calcium carbonate. If you'll recall we were theorizing as to why differing amounts of carbonate in a titration experiment were needed to raise the pH of a solution from 4.0 to 5.0. When we assumed 100% solubi

Mass of Carbonates Needed to Raise Solution pH One Unit

An actual lab titration of a mildly acidic process water at a pH of 4.0 requires 0.9 grams/liter of Na2CO3 to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.0; re-running the titration but this time using CaCO3 requires 2.2 grams/liter of CaCO3 to raise the process water pH from 4.0 to 5.0...essentially a 2.25X difference. If we assume these tit

Predominant Organic Acids Present in Softwoods such as Pine

I have a wood chemistry course in which we are asked to explain the hierarchy of the organic wood acids present in softwood species like pine or spruce. Could you please offer a few other possible organic acids that might be present in softwoods? I am only really interested in the predominant acids.

Organic Acids vs. Aldehydes vs. Alcohols vs. Alkanes

1) When organic acids are subjected to continuing increases in temperature, and depending on the acid itself, is it reasonable to assume that organic acids convert first to aldehydes, then to alcohols, then to alkanes given increasing temperature? It is also a fair assumption that condensing of these compounds would occur in the

Determining the Rate Constant for Mutarotation

Pretend that you are running the following experiment as outlined attached. 1. Prepare 100 mL of 5.0% (w/v) D-glucose solution. Fill the polarimeter cell with the solution. The cell is 10 cm in length. The polarimeter is set at 586 nm. 2. Zero the polarimeter on air. 3. Measure the optical rotation every five minutes and rec

Synthesis of Carbonyl Compounds

1. Devise syntheses for the molecules shown. 2. The spicy flavor of cayenne pepper is due mainly to a substance called capsaicin. See if you can deduce the structure of each intermediate on the basis of the capsaicin laboratory synthesis. See attached file for full problem description.

Feasible Synthetic Routes for Compounds

This problem asks to use equations to outline feasible synthetic routes to the compounds below starting with benzene or toluene and any other necessary aliphatic or inorganic reagents. Assume o- and p- isomers can be separated. a. p-aminobenzoic acid b. m-chloroethylbenzene c. 2-bromo-5-(1-propenyl)aniline See attac

relative orientations of substituents on aromatic rings

One of the first methods that was used for determining the relative orientations of substituents on aromatic rings was devised by Korner. The "Korner Method of Absolute Orientation" was first applied to determine the structures of the three isomeric dibromobenzenes A, B, and C. Each isomer can be converted into one or more mon

Concentration of hypothetical triprotic acid

What is the concentration of A^3- ions at equilibrium for a 0.10 M solution of a hypothetical triprotic acid H3A, with Ka1 = 6.0 x 10^-3, Ka2 = 2.0 x 10^-8, Ka3 = 1.0 x 10^-14 ? a) 9.1 x 10 ^ -21 M b) 6.2 x 10 ^ -18 M c) 3.1 x 10 ^ -15 M d) 1.0 x 10 ^ -14 M e) 4.8 x 10 ^ -19 M

Extractions

Draw a flow sheet to show how you would separate the components of a mixture containing and acid substance, toluic acid, a basic substance, p-bromo-aniline, and a neutral substance, anthracene.

Conversion of aqueous formaldehyde to methylene glycola

Assuming that you have formaldehyde, CH2O, fully solubilized in water at a temperature of 200 degrees F, is the first order and natural reaction: CH2O + H2O = CH4O2 In otherwords, assuming that the water is pure water, will formaldehyde with 100% certainty become methylene glycol? What things might inhibit the formation

IR Spectra Used to Determine Structure

In this experiment, I investigated the reactivity of primary and secondary alcohols toward oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (bleach). There were 3 possibilities: 1) only the primary alcohol is oxidized to the aldehyde (carboxylic acid); 2) only the secondary alcohol is oxidized to the ketone, or 3) both alcohols are oxidized.

Fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid synthesis

Metabolism uses various ways to ensure that 2 opposing pathways do not occur at the same time. For the following pair of pathways list 2 ways (different cell location, allosteric effector, covalent modification, different intermediate, different enzyme, or different means of transport). How are fatty acid oxidation and fat

Combinatorial Synthesis of Esters

The purpose of this experiment was to see which mixtures smelled like wintergreen. The 8 esters and the reactants (alcohols and carboxylic acids) from which they will be made are shown in Table 1. We checked the smell mixtures by using odor. Two, and only two, of the mixtures should smell like wintergreen (they contain met

Combinatorial Synthesis of a Series of Esters

1. Why are the crude ester mixtures washed with aqueous NaHCO3? 2. You wish to test 9 esters for antitumor activity. One and only one of the 9 esters will actually have antitumor activity. You will prepare the esters from an alcohol and an acid as was done in the lab experiment here. However, you will prepare mixtures contain

Acidity of Carboxylic Groups

The two carboxyl groups in 3-chlorohexanedioic acid are not equivalent and thus have different dissociation constants. which carboxylic group is more acidic?

Calculating OH- of Aqueous Solutions

Calculate OH- of each aqueous solution using the following H3o+ a naoh 1.0 X 10-12m b 6.0 X 10-4M c milk of magnesia 1.0 X 10-9M d stomach acid 5.2 X 10-2M. Calculate the oh- of each aqueous solution with the following H30+ A baking soda 1.0 X 10-8M B orange juice 2.0 X 10-4 C milk 5.0 X 10-7 D bleach 4.8 X 10-12.

Separation Of An Acid And A Neutral Substance

Two questions need to be answered by using the attached document. #1. What is a good hypothesis? #2. How did you come to that conclusion about your hypothesis? This exercise demonstrates how solvent extraction techniques can be applied effectively to problems that require the separation of mixtures of organic acids, base