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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

Adipic Acid and Thionyl Chloride

I'm preparing adipyl chloride from adipic acid and thionyl chloride. During the heating of the adipic acid/thionyl chloride solution, my lab partner said we could not use calcium chloride in the drying tube instead we were to use alumina. Why would this be?

Aromatic Imide Formation: Synthesis of N-Phenylmaleimide

1. The second step in the reaction to from the imide is much slower than that of the first stage (formation of the acid amide). Explain. 2) Phthalimide has a Ka = 5 x 10^-9. Write an equation for the reaction of phthalimide with potassium amide (a strong base) in N,N dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent. Name the product. See atta

Freidel Craft Reaction: Paraformaldehyde and Mesitylene

1) What is the number of moles of formic acid and water in 4.5 mL 95% formic acid? Assume percent is by weight and the density is 1.25 g/mL. 2) What is the difference between paraformaldehyde and formaldehyde? Please explain it in detail. 3) What are the dangers involved in using formic acid and paraformaldehyde? 4) Show the

Hypochlorite Oxidation of an Alcohol: Cyclohexanone

Basically in this experiment, we took some cyclohexanol and reacted it with hypochlorite to form cycohexanone. 1.)In this experiment, why is a solution of sodium bisulfite added to the reaction product mixture? Write a reaction to account for what is happening. Is the Bisulfite ion acting as an oxidizing or reducing agent?

An Equilibrium Problem

C2H5CO2H(l) + C3H7OH(l) ---> C2H5COOC3H7(l) + H2O(l) 18.5 mL propanoic acid are mixed with 19.0 mL n-propanol to produce n-propyl propanoate when heated and distilled. At room temperature, the equilibrium constant, Keq is approximately 3. Calculate the number of moles of reactants and products expected in the equilibrium

Expected Yield of Propanoic Acid Reaction

C2H5CO2H(l) + C3H7OH (l) ---> C2H5COOC3H7(l) + H2O When 18.5 mL of propanoic acid and 19.0 mL of n-propanol are mixed together, calculate the volume of water expected if the yield of the ester were 100% Other Data: Boiling point of 1-propyl propanoate - 122 degrees C Volume of water collected - 3.31 mL Weight of produ

Synthesis from benzene, toluene or alcohols: Examples

Outline the possible synthesis of each of the following compounds from benzene/ toluene using any necessary aliphatic or inorganic compound 1) butyl benzene 2) 1-phenylethanol 3) 3-bromobenzoinc acid 4) phenylethene 5) 4-chlorophenol 6) 3-chloraniline 7) 2,4,6 trinitophenol 8) 2-chloro-4-methylphenol 9) 4-chl

Synthesis from Benzene, Toluene or Alcohols

Question 1) Outline the steps of each of the following compounds from benzene, toluene and alcohol of four carbons or fewer. 1) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol 2) 2-phenyl-2-propanol 3) 3-hexanol 4) 4-ethyl-4-heptanol 5) 2-Bromo-2-methylhexene 6) 1,2-diphenyl-2-propanol 7) 1-p-bromophenyl-1-phenyl-1-propanol

10 Questions About Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds

The reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of acid is termed Fischer esterification. 1) the nucleophile in this reaction is: _________ 2) compound C functions as ____________ in the reaction a) neutralizer b) catalyst c) solvent d) base scavenger 3) Fischer esterification is an exampl

Reaction Questions about Acyl Substitutions

Please see the attached file. 1) What is the order of increasing acidity for the following compound (least to most)? 2) What is the order of decreasing reactivity towards nucleophilic acyl substitution for the carboxylic acid derivatives (most reactive first)? 3) the reaction is described as a ___________ process

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Titrations

1. When you mix 10.0ml of ascorbic acid standard solution in the flask with 25ml water, 2ml of 6M acetic acid solution and 1ml of starch solution, it is necessary to know the exact final volume of this solution to get an accurate determination of ascorbic acid in the titrations of test solutions? Explain. Hint: Do the volumes o

Percent Recoveries in Recrystallization Lab Experiment

I have a chemistry problem. In lab we did the experiment Recrystallization. I would like to know if my values that I got in the laboratory are sensible and my percentage recovery. The mass of my impure aspirin was 0.250mg. My volume of solvent used for my impure aspirin was 3.25ml. I got this value from my 2.50ml of water used a

Methane and Methanol Difference

The difference between methane and methanol is an -OH group replacement of a H group. What difference does the -OH group make in this case? Whats the potential for exposure, the most likely exposure routes, and the toxicity effects with it?

Reduction Mechanisms for Formadehyde

Given the following: methanoic acid (CH2O2) + heat + reduction = CH2O (formaldeyhde vapor) ethanoic acid (C2H4O2) + heat + reduction = CH3O2 (acetaldehyde vapor) 1) Is it reasonable to assume that these aqueous organic acids when heated to vapor will in fact lose an oxygen and convert to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde vapo

Chemical Tests for Distinguishing Similar Compounds

2. Describe simple chemical tests that would enable you to distinguish between the following sets of compounds. Write equations for any chemical reactions: (a) dinitrogen monoxide (nitrous oxide), ammonia, and nitrogen (b) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen monoxide (c) dilute hydrochloric acid, deuterium oxide, a

Alcohols as Bases

Why is the pKa of water 15.74 smaller than the pKa of simple alcohols?

Why Do I Require More CaCO3 to Raise pH than Predicted?

If you can remember back to a discussion and inquiry we exchanged last week concerning the use of sodium carbonate vs. calcium carbonate. If you'll recall we were theorizing as to why differing amounts of carbonate in a titration experiment were needed to raise the pH of a solution from 4.0 to 5.0. When we assumed 100% solubi

Mass of Carbonates Needed to Raise Solution pH One Unit

An actual lab titration of a mildly acidic process water at a pH of 4.0 requires 0.9 grams/liter of Na2CO3 to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.0; re-running the titration but this time using CaCO3 requires 2.2 grams/liter of CaCO3 to raise the process water pH from 4.0 to 5.0...essentially a 2.25X difference. If we assume these tit

How did I get a greater than 100% recovery of benzoic acid?

To quickly summarize, the lab dealt with isolating benzoic acid from a mixture via chemically active extraction. The mixture consisted of cellulose, methyl orange and of course the benzoic acid. We had to weigh about 4.0 g of the mixture. I weighed 4.08g. I did the lab, and after letting the benzoic acid dry I obtained 10.91

Reaction of methanoic and ethanoic acids with CaCO3

If I have a 1 liter aqueous solution that contains 15 mg/L methanoic acid and 15 mg/L ethanoic acid, what amount of calcium carbonate is needed to reduce each acid concentration by at least 50%? The only other information given is the pKa values for each acid which are 3.75 for methanoic acid and 4.70 for ethanoic acid.

Predominant Organic Acids Present in Softwoods such as Pine

I have a wood chemistry course in which we are asked to explain the hierarchy of the organic wood acids present in softwood species like pine or spruce. Could you please offer a few other possible organic acids that might be present in softwoods? I am only really interested in the predominant acids.

Chemical Synthesis

From the lab experiment, I would like to know what is the purpose of acetone in the reaction of the synthesis of adipic acid (hexanedioic acid)?

Organic Acids vs. Aldehydes vs. Alcohols vs. Alkanes

1) When organic acids are subjected to continuing increases in temperature, and depending on the acid itself, is it reasonable to assume that organic acids convert first to aldehydes, then to alcohols, then to alkanes given increasing temperature? It is also a fair assumption that condensing of these compounds would occur in the

Support and Claim Analysis

I was able to balance a formic acid to calcium methanoate equation as follows: 3CH2O2 + 2CaCO3 = 2(CHO2)Ca + 3CO2 + 2H2O However, I have tried and tried and cannot seem to balance an acetic acid to calcium ethanoate equation: xC2H4O2 + yCaCO3 = y(C2H3O2)Ca + xCO2 + zH2O I just cannot seem to balance this equation ---

Molar Concentration and Quantity of Acids

There exists both formic acid and acetic acid in a 1 liter solution of water. The overall solution pH is stated as 4.0 and it is also assumed that the 2 acids contribute equally to the pH. How do I then determine the molar concentration and quantity of each acid in the 1 liter solution of water?