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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

An Equilibrium Problem

C2H5CO2H(l) + C3H7OH(l) ---> C2H5COOC3H7(l) + H2O(l) 18.5 mL propanoic acid are mixed with 19.0 mL n-propanol to produce n-propyl propanoate when heated and distilled. At room temperature, the equilibrium constant, Keq is approximately 3. Calculate the number of moles of reactants and products expected in the equilibrium

Expected Yield of Propanoic Acid Reaction

C2H5CO2H(l) + C3H7OH (l) ---> C2H5COOC3H7(l) + H2O When 18.5 mL of propanoic acid and 19.0 mL of n-propanol are mixed together, calculate the volume of water expected if the yield of the ester were 100% Other Data: Boiling point of 1-propyl propanoate - 122 degrees C Volume of water collected - 3.31 mL Weight of produ

Synthesis from Benzene, Toluene or Alcohols

Question 1) Outline the steps of each of the following compounds from benzene, toluene and alcohol of four carbons or fewer. 1) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol 2) 2-phenyl-2-propanol 3) 3-hexanol 4) 4-ethyl-4-heptanol 5) 2-Bromo-2-methylhexene 6) 1,2-diphenyl-2-propanol 7) 1-p-bromophenyl-1-phenyl-1-propanol

10 Questions About Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds

The reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of acid is termed Fischer esterification. 1) the nucleophile in this reaction is: _________ 2) compound C functions as ____________ in the reaction a) neutralizer b) catalyst c) solvent d) base scavenger 3) Fischer esterification is an exampl

Reaction Questions about Acyl Substitutions

Please see the attached file. 1) What is the order of increasing acidity for the following compound (least to most)? 2) What is the order of decreasing reactivity towards nucleophilic acyl substitution for the carboxylic acid derivatives (most reactive first)? 3) the reaction is described as a ___________ process

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Titrations

1. When you mix 10.0ml of ascorbic acid standard solution in the flask with 25ml water, 2ml of 6M acetic acid solution and 1ml of starch solution, it is necessary to know the exact final volume of this solution to get an accurate determination of ascorbic acid in the titrations of test solutions? Explain. Hint: Do the volumes o

Percent Recoveries in Recrystallization Lab Experiment

I have a chemistry problem. In lab we did the experiment Recrystallization. I would like to know if my values that I got in the laboratory are sensible and my percentage recovery. The mass of my impure aspirin was 0.250mg. My volume of solvent used for my impure aspirin was 3.25ml. I got this value from my 2.50ml of water used a

Methane and Methanol Difference

The difference between methane and methanol is an -OH group replacement of a H group. What difference does the -OH group make in this case? Whats the potential for exposure, the most likely exposure routes, and the toxicity effects with it?

Reduction Mechanisms for Formadehyde

Given the following: methanoic acid (CH2O2) + heat + reduction = CH2O (formaldeyhde vapor) ethanoic acid (C2H4O2) + heat + reduction = CH3O2 (acetaldehyde vapor) 1) Is it reasonable to assume that these aqueous organic acids when heated to vapor will in fact lose an oxygen and convert to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde vapo

Chemical Tests for Distinguishing Similar Compounds

2. Describe simple chemical tests that would enable you to distinguish between the following sets of compounds. Write equations for any chemical reactions: (a) dinitrogen monoxide (nitrous oxide), ammonia, and nitrogen (b) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen monoxide (c) dilute hydrochloric acid, deuterium oxide, a

Why Do I Require More CaCO3 to Raise pH than Predicted?

If you can remember back to a discussion and inquiry we exchanged last week concerning the use of sodium carbonate vs. calcium carbonate. If you'll recall we were theorizing as to why differing amounts of carbonate in a titration experiment were needed to raise the pH of a solution from 4.0 to 5.0. When we assumed 100% solubi

Mass of Carbonates Needed to Raise Solution pH One Unit

An actual lab titration of a mildly acidic process water at a pH of 4.0 requires 0.9 grams/liter of Na2CO3 to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.0; re-running the titration but this time using CaCO3 requires 2.2 grams/liter of CaCO3 to raise the process water pH from 4.0 to 5.0...essentially a 2.25X difference. If we assume these tit

Predominant Organic Acids Present in Softwoods such as Pine

I have a wood chemistry course in which we are asked to explain the hierarchy of the organic wood acids present in softwood species like pine or spruce. Could you please offer a few other possible organic acids that might be present in softwoods? I am only really interested in the predominant acids.

Organic Acids vs. Aldehydes vs. Alcohols vs. Alkanes

1) When organic acids are subjected to continuing increases in temperature, and depending on the acid itself, is it reasonable to assume that organic acids convert first to aldehydes, then to alcohols, then to alkanes given increasing temperature? It is also a fair assumption that condensing of these compounds would occur in the

Support and Claim Analysis

I was able to balance a formic acid to calcium methanoate equation as follows: 3CH2O2 + 2CaCO3 = 2(CHO2)Ca + 3CO2 + 2H2O However, I have tried and tried and cannot seem to balance an acetic acid to calcium ethanoate equation: xC2H4O2 + yCaCO3 = y(C2H3O2)Ca + xCO2 + zH2O I just cannot seem to balance this equation ---

Molar Concentration and Quantity of Acids

There exists both formic acid and acetic acid in a 1 liter solution of water. The overall solution pH is stated as 4.0 and it is also assumed that the 2 acids contribute equally to the pH. How do I then determine the molar concentration and quantity of each acid in the 1 liter solution of water?

PH of a buffer

6. The Ka of citric acid is 7.4 x 10-4. What is the pH of a buffer made form 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M monosodium citrate?

Determining the Rate Constant for Mutarotation

Pretend that you are running the following experiment as outlined attached. 1. Prepare 100 mL of 5.0% (w/v) D-glucose solution. Fill the polarimeter cell with the solution. The cell is 10 cm in length. The polarimeter is set at 586 nm. 2. Zero the polarimeter on air. 3. Measure the optical rotation every five minutes and rec

Equations of reaction

1. Write the equations showing reactions of the amine and the carboxylic acid with the acids and bases added. 2. What are the major disadvantages of using ether as a solvent?

Synthesis of Carbonyl Compounds

1. Devise syntheses for the molecules shown. 2. The spicy flavor of cayenne pepper is due mainly to a substance called capsaicin. See if you can deduce the structure of each intermediate on the basis of the capsaicin laboratory synthesis. See attached file for full problem description.

Feasible Synthetic Routes for Compounds

This problem asks to use equations to outline feasible synthetic routes to the compounds below starting with benzene or toluene and any other necessary aliphatic or inorganic reagents. Assume o- and p- isomers can be separated. a. p-aminobenzoic acid b. m-chloroethylbenzene c. 2-bromo-5-(1-propenyl)aniline See attac

relative orientations of substituents on aromatic rings

One of the first methods that was used for determining the relative orientations of substituents on aromatic rings was devised by Korner. The "Korner Method of Absolute Orientation" was first applied to determine the structures of the three isomeric dibromobenzenes A, B, and C. Each isomer can be converted into one or more mon

Naming Products

Please name the PRODUCTS after each step of the synthesis. See attached file for full problem description.

Concentration of hypothetical triprotic acid

What is the concentration of A^3- ions at equilibrium for a 0.10 M solution of a hypothetical triprotic acid H3A, with Ka1 = 6.0 x 10^-3, Ka2 = 2.0 x 10^-8, Ka3 = 1.0 x 10^-14 ? a) 9.1 x 10 ^ -21 M b) 6.2 x 10 ^ -18 M c) 3.1 x 10 ^ -15 M d) 1.0 x 10 ^ -14 M e) 4.8 x 10 ^ -19 M

Bromination of Toluene

If you treat toluene with 2 equivalences of bromine, you will get aminly 2,4-dibromotoluene and not 2, 6-dibromotoluene. However, you can produce 3, 5-dibromotoluene by treating 4-aminotoluene with 2 equivalences of bromine. Then first treating the product, 4-amino-3,5-dibromotoluene, with HNO2 in H2SO4, and secondly treating th


This problem set (2 questions, see attached file) provides an opportunity to evaluate organic acids and bases in order to determine the side of a reaction favored at equilibrium.