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Questions About Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds

The reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of acid is termed Fischer esterification.

1)
the nucleophile in this reaction is: _________

2)
compound C functions as ____________ in the reaction
a) neutralizer
b) catalyst
c) solvent
d) base scavenger

3)
Fischer esterification is an example of:
a) nucleophilic acyl addition
b) nucleophilic acyl substitution
c) nucleophilic acyl rearrangment
d) nucleophilic acyl elimination

4)
many nucleophilic addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones are catalyzed by acid or base. Bases catalyze hydration by:
a) converting the water to hydroxide ion, a much better nucleophile
b) making the carbonyl group less electrophilic
c) shifting the equilibrium of the reaction
d) making the carbonyl group more electrophilic

5)

Formulate a reasonable mechanism for the reaction of the cyanohydrin of benzaldeyhe, shown above, with aqueous NaOH. Show all intermediate structures and all electron flow with arrows.

6)

This reaction is a ___________ reaction.
a) 1,2-additon
b) direct addition
c) electrophilic addition
d) conjugate addition

7)

carboxylic acids are synthesized from alkyl halides via either grignard reagent carboxylation or nitrile hydrolysis.
What is the best method for effecting the following conversions? Explain the choice and if neither is appropriate, explain.

a)

b)

c)

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10 Questions About Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds are answered and explained.

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