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    Radiation, chemicals, isotopes

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    1. What types of bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in Japans surrender at the conclusion of WWII? What isotopes were used in the bombs? What were the long term effects of these bombs?

    2. How much radiation is someone exposed to during a routine xray? How much radiation are people exposed to naturally from cosmic radiation and the earth? Are there places on earth where individuals are likely to receive higher doses of radiation relative to another location? What accounts for these differences? What level of exposure is considered safe by the US Government?

    3. Formulate an all purpose cleaner consisting of simple chemicals for example, cornstarch, cream of tartar, epsom salt, etc...Clearly state why you chose each ingredient and what you believe tht ingredient would be useful for. Be aware of chemicals that will neutralize or otherwise decrease the effectiveness of other chemicals in your mixture; example if incompatible ingredients might include acids with bases, etc...Critique the formulations of other chemicals constructively and suggest possible improvements or modifications.

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    1. These were both atomic bombs.

    The Hiroshima bomb was made from highly-enriched uranium-235. This was prepared by diffusion enrichment techniques using the very small differences in mass of the two main isotopes: U-235 and U-238.

    The explosive charge for the bomb detonated over Nagasaki three days later was provided by about of 8 kilograms of plutonium-239.

    The devastating effects of both kinds of bombs depended essentially upon the energy released at the moment of the explosion, causing immediate fires, destructive blast pressures, and extreme local radiation exposures. To the deaths from acute radiation exposure have since been added those due to ...

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