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nuclear reaction and decay

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Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Emitters

When unstable nuclei decay, they generally decay into a more stable form. In the process, they emit radiation in the form of particles, particles, or rays.
? An Alpha particle is a helium nucleus, the symbol for which is .
? A Beta particle is a high-speed electron and has the symbol .
? A Gamma ray is a high-energy photon, a form of electromagnetic radiation, and is sometimes symbolized as ,

Part A
What type of radiation is given off in the following decay reaction?

Part B
Which form of radiation is given off in the following decay reaction?
Alpha particle
Beta particle
Gamma ray

Writing Nuclear Equations
Nuclear reactions involve a change in the nucleus of an atom. For this reason, nuclear equations show the mass number and atomic number of each species. Nuclear equations must be balanced in both mass number (mass balance) and atomic number (charge balance). For example, consider the equation for the decay of carbon 14:

To complete a nuclear equation, follow the steps below. (Intro 1 figure)

Part A
Write the identity of the missing nucleus for the following nuclear decay reaction:
Express your answer as an isotope.

Part B
Write the identity of the missing nucleus for the following nuclear decay reaction:
Express your answer as an isotope.

Part C
Write the identity of the missing nucleus for the following nuclear decay reaction:
Express your answer as an isotope.

Types of Radiation
Unstable atomic nuclei decay to form nuclei that are usually more stable. In the process, they emit high-energy particles. These particles, called nuclear radiation, occur in three different forms:
1. alpha ( ) particles,
2. beta ( ) particles, and
3. gamma ( ) rays.
Alpha particles are helium nuclei, with two neutrons and two protons. Beta particles are high-energy electrons. Gamma rays are high-energy photons, a form of electromagnetic radiation just like visible light but of much higher energy.

Part A
Match each description to a type of radiation.
Drag each item to the appropriate bin.
mass = 0 amu, deepest penetration medium penetration mass ~ 4 amu least penetration
charge = 0 charge = -1 mass ~ 1/2000 amu charge = + 2

X Particle =
B Particle =
Y Ray =

Part B
Rank the following by speed.
Rank from fastest to slowest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.
B particle Y ray X particle

Radioactive Half-lives
Every radioactive isotope decays at a certain rate. It is never known when a given nucleus will decay, but if many nuclei are gathered together, as a group they will decay at a measurable and consistent rate. A radioactive half-life is the time it will take for half of the nuclei to decay.

Part A
Phosphorus-32 has a half-life of 14 . Starting with 6.00 of , how many grams will remain after 98.0 ?
Express your answer numerically in grams.

Part B
Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 . In a plant fossil, you find that the has decayed to 1/16 of the original amount. How long ago was this plant alive?
Express your answer numerically in years.

Problem 3.6
Part A
In part A, supply the missing information in the following table:
Medical Use Atomic Symbol Mass Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons
Cancer treatment
Give your answer as three numbers in order from left to right as indicated in table, separate them with commas.

Part B
In parts B and C, supply the missing information in the following table:
Medical Use Atomic Symbol Mass Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons
Brain scan 99 43
Express your answer as an isotope.
Atomic Symbol:

Part C
Express your answer as an integer.
Number of Neutrons:

Part D
In parts D and E, supply the missing information in the following table:
Medical Use Atomic Symbol Mass Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons
Blood flow 141 58
Express your answer as an isotope.
Atomic Symbol:

Part E
Express your answer as an integer.
Number of Neutrons:

Part F
In parts F and G, supply the missing information in the following table:
Medical Use Atomic Symbol Mass Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons
Bone scan 85 47
Express your answer as an isotope.
Atomic Symbol:

Part G
Express your answer as an integer.
Number of Protons:

Part H
In part H, supply the missing information in the following table:
Medical Use Atomic Symbol Mass Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons
Lung function
Give your answer as three numbers in order from left to right as indicated in table, separate them with commas.

Problem 3.8
Part A
Choose a symbol for the proton.

Part E
Choose a symbol for the cobalt-60.

Problem 3.10
Part A
Choose the symbol for .
electron
proton
neutron
positron
alpha particle

Part B
Choose the symbol for .
germanium-15
germanium-32
phosphorus-32
phosphorus-15
germanium-17

Part C
Choose the symbol for .

Part D
Choose the symbol for .
iron-26
cobalt-26
cobalt-59
iron-59
manganese-26

Part E
Problem 3.14
Choose the correct balanced nuclear equation for the alpha decay of each of the following radioactive isotopes.

Problem 3.16
Choose the correct balanced nuclear equation for the beta decay of each of the following radioactive isotopes.

Part A
potassium-42

Part B
iron-59

Part C
iron-60

Part D
barium-141

Problem 3.20
Choose the correct balanced equation for each of the following nuclear equations.

Problem 3.44
Indicate whether each of the following are characteristic of the fission or fusion process or both.

Part A
Very high temperatures are required to initiate the reaction.
fission
fusion
both fission and fusion

Part B
Less radioactive waste is produced.
fission
fusion
both fission and fusion

Part C
Hydrogen nuclei are the reactants.
fission
fusion
both fission and fusion

Part D
Large amounts of energy are released when the nuclear reaction occurs.
fission
fusion
both fission and fusion

Problem 3.46
Part A
What is the radioactive nucleus that emits a beta particle to form the following nucleus (Part A 1 figure) ?
Enter your answer as number of protons and number of neutrons, separated with commas.

Problem 3.52
Give the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in atoms of the following isotopes.

Part A
boron-10
Give your answer as three numbers separated with commas, in the order specified in the question.

Part B
zinc-72
Give your answer as three numbers separated with commas, in the order specified in the question.

Part C
iron-59
Give your answer as three numbers separated with commas, in the order specified in the question.

Part D
gold-198
Give your answer as three numbers separated with commas, in the order specified in the question.
Problem 3.58
Choose the correct balanced equation for each of the following nuclear reactions.

Problem 3.78
A 16 sample of sodium-24 decays to 2.0 in 45 .

Part A

What is the half-life of ?

Review Questions: 3.5 Medical Applications Using Radioactivity
Part A
Ga-68 is used for
imaging brains and kidneys.
detecting pancreatic cancer.
imaging hearts.
external radiation therapy.

Part B
Iodine-131 is used for
abdominal imaging.
imaging brains and kidneys.
alleviation of bone cancer pain.
treatment of thyroid diseases.

Part C
The imaging technique that uses the energy absorbed by the proton in hydrogen atoms placed in a magnetic field is called
positron emission tomography (PET)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
computed tomography (CT)
radioactive topography

Problem 3.12
Part A
As a nurse in an oncology unit, you sometimes give an injection of a radioisotope. What are three ways you can minimize your exposure to radiation?

Part B
Why are cancer cells more sensitive to radiation than nerve cells?

Part C
What is the purpose of placing a lead apron on a patient who is receiving routine dental X rays?

Part D
Why are the walls in a radiology office built of thick concrete blocks?

Problem 3.70
The irradiation of foods was approved in the United States in the 1980s.
Part A
Why have we not seen many irradiated products in our markets?

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