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Molecular Motors and Models.

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See attached 5 questions (related to each other) on molecular motors. I have trouble drawing the model and doing the calculations.

1. The attached table is from the notes. Show that 1 kCal/mOl =418.7 CEU (see attachment for the table).

2. Molecular motors typically generate forces in the range of a few piconewtons. Suppose a motor generates a force of 1 pN. How much work is done when this motor moves a load through a distance of 3.4A? Note that work = force*distance, and that 3.4A is the distance between two successive base pairs in double-helical DNA. (Express your answer in Joules).

3. To get some idea of how large the work in problem 1 is in macroscopic terms, suppose that one mole of motors each moves a load through a distance of 3.4A with a force of 1 pN. How much total work is done? (Express your answer in kcal/mol).

4. Draw the tripeptide tyr-ala-asp. Show all hydrogen atoms. Be sure to show the correct ionization states of all ionizable atoms at pH 7.

5. Draw the trinucleotide C-A-G at pH 7. (lnclude a phosphate group on the 5'-end but not
on the 3'-end). Show all hydrogen atoms. Be sure to show the correct ionization states of all ionizable atoms at pH 7.

Please see the attachment for the complete question.

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https://brainmass.com/chemistry/acid-and-base-organic-chemistry/molecular-motors-models-520882

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Converting units is simply successively multiplying the original value by "1" making sure the required units cancel out.
For example, note that since we can write
And when we multiply by the calorie unit ...

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The molecular motors and models are examined in the solution.

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Material balances for combustion of octane

One of the most common chemical reactors found around us is the car engine. It takes gasoline and reacts it with air to release chemical energy, which in turn is transformed into mechanical energy. Emissions from your car's engine have been an environmental concern for many years.

Using the concepts of material balances, determine how much (in moles and lbs) air is needed and CO2, N2, CO, and H2O are emitted for every gallon of gasoline burned in your car's engine. Assume that gasoline, a mixture of many hydrocarbons, can be modeled as pure octane (C8H18). Assume that 90% of the octane is turned into carbon dioxide and water, and 10% of the octane is turned into carbon monoxide and water. No excess air is involved in the reaction, meaning only enough air to provide the needed oxygen is introduced into the engine. Also assume the nitrogen in the air does not react at the temperature of your engine. Use the variables nO2, nN2, nCO, nCO2, nN2, and nH2O to represent the number of moles of each component in various streams.
C8H18 + O2 arrow CO2 + CO+ H2O

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