Explore BrainMass

North American History

First amendment freedoms

Read the background for each first amendment freedoms (speech, religion, assembly, press) spotlighted below. answer the questions by inserting the answers where indicated... Please see the attached sheet, I am having a hard time understanding the dialogue from this era. I have started some of it, though I am not sure if I am

History Topics

Please help me identify why the following events are important for classroom discuss. The French Indian War The Great Awakening The War of 1812 The Monroe Doctrine Manifest Destiny Slavery as an Institution The Mexican American War The Union and the Civil War The Confederacy and the Civil Wa

American Colonies defeat of Great Britain

How were the American colonies (United States) able to defeat Great Britain in the War for Independence? How did the leadership of George Washington contribute to this victory?

Summary of J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur's 1782 letter

A short Summary using sections 49-51 of J. Hector St. John de Crévecoeur's 1782 letter, "What Is an American," According to Crévecoeur, what distinguishes an American from a European? Explain how life in the British North American colonies contributed to the creation of a unique American identity. Provide examples. sectio

Social History of Canada - Native Society

Please help me with the following essay question. Its a 1000 word essay. Thank you so much. Essay Question: To what extent were native peoples capable of making informed decisions and rational choices when determining the nature of their connection with European society?


Should juveniles charged with serious crimes such as murder be treated as adults? Can children have intent?

Before the 18th century, the idea of enlightenment was confined only to Holland and England. After the peace of Utrecht in 1713, it began to spread towards France. The French philosophers were great writers and intellectuals. Some of the great French philosophers of the time were Montesquieu, Voltaire and Rousseau. Montesquieu was influenced by the philosophy of John Locke and he wrote "The Spirit of the Laws." One of the greatest literary works of Voltaire was "Candida." Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote "Social Contract." His love for liberty could be seen in his famous quote, "Man is born free, but everywhere is in chains." The French enlightenment had also deeply influenced the English thinkers. The spirit of enlightenment also spread to Europe. Many of the great American leaders were influenced by the enlightenment thoughts. Great American political leaders like Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin were all influenced by the English and French philosophers. Thomas Paine's pamphlet, the Common Sense sparked off revolution in the American colonies. The Declaration of independence borrowed heavily from the works of the enlightenment thinkers. The enlightenment ideas like natural law or self-determination had its roots in the enlightenment philosophies.

Western idea of Enlightenment was based on belief in reason. Its fundamental thinking was based on nature and aimed at human progress. Before the 18th century, the idea of enlightenment was confined only to Holland and England. After the peace of Utrecht in 1713, the idea of enlightenment began to spread towards France. The

The two early English joint-stock companies were Virginia Company of Plymouth and Virginia company of London. Basically, there were three types of English colonies; Royal colonies, Proprietary colonies and self-governing colonies. The first Royal colony, Virginia was started under the Joint stock Company of London. When the colony was developed, the colonists formed the General Assembly and later the House of Burgesses. House of Burgesses was the first representative government in the New World. After the Mayflower Compact of 1620, the settlers of Plymouth colony decided to rule themselves and thus began the idea of self-government. Massachusetts Bay Colony was functioned at first with the help of General Court. Religion played an important part in the administration. The economies of the New England colonies were based on agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, ship building and trade. The Middle Colonies were ruled by the royal governor. The colonists were dependent on the production of grain, shipping, and fur trade. There were three groups of people in the middle colonies; the gentry, rich and best educated. The middle colonies were known as the "bread basket" of the colonies. Southern colonies had a system of plantations. In the beginning, there was the system of indentured servitude, but later they had brought African slaves and started the system of slavery.

The serious colonial explorations began with the launch of two Joint stock companies; Virginia Company of Plymouth and Virginia company of London Basically, there were three types of English colonies; Royal colonies, Proprietary colonies and self-governing colonies. New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carol

The end of the Mexican War created bitter sectional conflict between Northern Whigs and Southern Democrats. The solution to the tensions came to an end with the introduction of Wilmot Provisions in 1846. The Wilmot provisions prohibited slavery in the newly acquired territories from Mexico. Southerners opposed the Wilmot provisions and in the long run it was not able to pass in the Senate. Eventhough, Wilmot provisions did not become law, it fuelled once more the sectionalism in the politics of United States. The failure to reach a solution on Wilmot provisions led to the rise of another term known as the "Popular Sovereignty." According to the new theory, the people of the new territories would decide, whether they need slavery or not. The issue of Popular Sovereignty did not remain during 1840s but it continued to be debated even during the next decade. Another important event before the Civil war was the founding of the Free Soil party in 1848. The Free Soil Party opposed the extension of slavery in the west and favored free land for homesteaders. The sectional issues continued to dominate the politics of the country. In 1850, Henry Clay in an effort to solve all the outstanding issues presented a series of resolutions known as Omnibus bill, but it failed. In the congress the issue of compromise of 1850 was taken over by Stephen Douglas. The Congress was able to pass the compromise of 1850. Another important event in 1850 which led to the sectional conflict was the publication of the book Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The novel had terrific impact on the nation that about two million copies of the books were sold in 1852. The piece of legislation introduced in 1854 by Stephen Douglas had shattered the sectional peace. The Kansas Nebraska Act created two territories Kansas and Nebraska. The Act had wounded the feelings of Northerners and they blamed Douglas for supporting the southerners. Another gruesome incident in the history of sectional issue was the bleeding Kansas. The Kansas Nebraska Act stipulated that issue of slavery in the territory would be decided on the basis of popular vote. Both Northerners and Southerners fought each other to occupy the state. The situation became grave when John Brown, an abolitionist and his followers killed five men in 1856. It was followed by violence to revenge the attacks of John Brown. In the end, the bloody conflict in Kansas claimed the life of about 200 men. In the Dred Scott case in the Supreme Court, Justice Tanney ruled that Dred Scott had no right to sue in the Federal Court because slaves and free blacks were not the citizens of United States. He further ruled that congress had no right to ban slavery in any territory as it would be violate the Fifth Amendment. In essence, he ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. The ruling of the Supreme Court further created a great division in the country over the issue of slavery. The last event before the Civil war was Lincoln Douglas debate over the issue of slavery in 1858. Although, Lincoln failed to win the Senate seat of Illinois, the debates brought him to the national spotlight.

The end of the Mexican War created bitter sectional conflict between Northern Whigs and Southern Democrats. The abolitionists of the North feared that the slavery would be extended to the newly acquired territories while the southerners feared that if the slavery was abolished, they would loose their power in the congress.

US Constitution Ratification Arguments

Creation of the U.S. Constitution   From the perspective of a Pennsylvania farmer, please address how each of the following factors may have affected him:   ·         The philosophical ideals embodied by the Declaration of Independence ·         The similarities and differences of the philosophies in th

American Revolutionary War

What were the benefits of adopting the Constitution over continuing to use the Articles of Confederation? What were the drawbacks of adopting the Constitution? If you lived during this period in history, which of the philosophies would you have supported?

The British parliament had passed the Navigation Act in the 17th century as a part of mercantilism. The Act stipulated that only the British ships were permitted to export and import goods in the colonies. The colonists secretly began to trade goods with non-British colonies in the Caribbean. The Navigational Acts were withdrawn in 1849 and the British had to follow the policy of free trade. Sugar Act or the Revenue Act of 1764 was the first tax imposed by the British government over the American colonies. Protest came from colonies especially from Virginia. The protests reached its full momentum with the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765. The Seven Years War, created a huge debt for the British treasury of about 150 million British pounds. The Greenville ministry decided to extract some money from the colonies by the way of Stamp Act. The internal taxes until that time had arisen only from the colonial assemblies. Along with the Stamp Act, the parliament passed the Mutiny Act, which required the colonials to quarter the soldiers. The legislation of the British parliament backfired. The colonists raised the slogan, "No taxation without representation." In 1765, the representatives of the nine colonies met at Newyork at the Stamp Act congress and petitioned King George III and the parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. The British parliament responded by repealing the Stamp Act and passed the Declaratory Act to show their resolve to tax the colonies whenever it was necessary. Sons of Liberty played great role in forming the public opinion against the British. When the Stamp Act was passed, the Liberty boys met in each town under a Liberty tree and burnt the effigies of British officials. Sons of Liberty threatened the royal officials and committed excesses against the colonial governor. They were responsible for the Boston Tea party. Thus the secret organizations were able to undermine the British economy in the colonies. Quartering Act which was passed on June 2, 1765 was an indirect tax on the colonies for protection from the French. The colonists did not consider French as a threat and opposed it. Violence broke out in colonies over the issue and many provinces implemented the provisions of the Quartering Act only for name sake. Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer imposed an external tax on the colonies in 1767 known as the Townshend duties. The colonists who were already encouraged by the success in the Stamp Act had presented a thunderous opposition. The British Parliament acceded to the protests of the British manufacturers who lost terribly due to decline in colonial trade and growth of American industry. Townshend duties were repealed in 1770 except that of tea. In 1773, the parliament passed the Tea Act to save financially troubled East India Company. The colonies feared that it was a step to monopolize the tea trade. The radicals in America believed that the cheaper tea was aimed to get the public support to the taxes already in force. The unpopular Tea Act resulted in the Boston Tea party and the British did not get the desired result. The Committee of Correspondence was an idea developed by Samuel Adams. The committee was responsible for convening the First Continental congress. The committees did a great job of uniting the colonists, informing the new the developments, and help raise opposition against the actions of British crown. An important step in the American Revolution was taken in the First Continental congress. Until then, the colonists opposed the measures of Britain, but now they decided to start an open rebellion against Britain. They claimed that the actions of Britain had violated their natural rights and principles of English constitution. The defeat of Britain was also due to the role of the philosophers. One such philosopher was Thomas Paine who had published a document called Common Sense in 1776. He called upon the colonists to fight for their complete independence from Britain. His philosophy was based on the natural right philosophy of John Locke. Thus we can see that the efforts of Britain to prosper economically was thwarted by the colonists and ultimately led to their downfall.

The causes for the defeat of Britain in the American Revolution had a long history. The British Parliament had passed the Navigation Acts in the 17th century to control the activities of Dutch and prevent from making profits. The theory behind the act was mercantilism. The Act stipulated that only the British ships were per

American Revolution questions

What is the position taken by the British Parliament and the American Patriots for the Tea Act and the Coercive Acts? How did each of these events contribute to the growing tension between Great Britain and the Colonies?

Questions about the British Colonies

How did life in the British colonies contribute to creating a unique American identity? How do you see that identity manifested in modern American society? Provide three examples of differences in economic and social development between the Northern and Southern colonies. What affect did slavery have on these differences?

Arizona Constitution Assignment

I am to do these seprately, but both in APA. I am looking for some help. I have already looked in my book and on line. Any other suggestions or help? Thank You in advance. :-) This is the assignment: Write a 250-500-word summary of various methods to introduce a law in the state of Arizona. Then prepare a 250-500-word

Terrorist Attack on the U.S.

Terrorism The terrorist attack on the U.S. on September 11, 2001 emphasizes the importance of not relying on history alone. Other factors, such as political, environmental, and economic changes should also be examined. Please answer the following questions paper: 1. Within the framework of a hazard and vulnerability ana

The founding fathers of United States had formulated a balanced government based on Federalism. There existed two kinds of federalism; Dual and cooperative. In dual federalism the powers of the Federal and state governments were equal. The co-operative federalism had the view that Federal government and state governments should cooperate in administrative matters, but in reality it was no so. There was a gradual shift from dual federalism to the cooperative federalism. The changes were made by the rulings of the Supreme Court of United States. The first major decision by the Supreme Court came in the case of McCulloch v Maryland (1819). Chief Justice John Marshall upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of the state to tax the bank. Other two important rulings by the Supreme Court were the cases of Gibbons v Ogden (1824) and Dred Scott v Sanford (1857). The opposition to the exceeding authority of the Federal government was controlled during the Jacksonian era (1829-37). During the 1930s, the political and social climate of the country enabled the Federal government to take dominance over the state laws. National laws and amendments to the constitution had taken many powers of the states. There were sincere moves on the part of President Richard Nixon to restore the powers of states in the name of new federalism. One barrier of granting state autonomy was the federal mandates. The Federal government had agreed that it was an obstacle to the states in exercising autonomy. The actions of federal government were routed by some of the rulings of the Supreme Court. Some of the important cases connected this were United States v Lopez (1995), Gun Free School Zones Act (1990), and Printz v United States (1997). Other examples of Federal supremacy can be seen in the case, United States v Morrison, Alden v Maine (1999), and Kimel v Florida Board of Regents. In all above cases, the Supreme Court declared that the actions of the Federal governments were unconstitutional and upheld the authority of the state governments. Comparison of two Periods: The Constitutional convention/ratification and New Deal: The constitutional convention was convened on May 25, 1787 at Philadelphia. The first issue was regarding the representation of the states in the new government. Two plans were considered; New Jersey and Virginia plans. Small states feared that they would loose their representation in the Federal government. Virginia plan actually aimed to diminish the powers of the states. Great Compromise put an end to it. The anti-federalists were critical of the constitution submitted before the states in 1787 for ratification. They were not opposed to a federal set up, but they believed that the proposed constitution would give too much power to the national government. The Bills of Rights were added to the constitution as a result of the insistence of the anti-federalists.During the period of New Deal, Roosevelt followed a policy of cooperation between Federal government and states. This kind of cooperation between Federal government and states were referred as cooperative federalism. The pattern of relationship between national government and states earned another name known as the "marble cake." Eventhough, there was cooperation between the Federal government and states, in reality, the functions and powers of the national government were much expanded. Many social programs introduced during this period were executed with the cooperation of center and states and hence there developed a system known as Federal-grant-in aid. The Supreme Court had allowed it to expand as desired by the Federal government.

1. The founding fathers of United States had formulated a balanced government based on Federalism. There existed two kinds of federalism; Dual and cooperative. In dual federalism, the powers of the Federal and state governments were equal. The co-operative federalism had the view that the Federal government and state govern

Inter war period and World War II: The Five Power Treaty was otherwise known as the Washington Naval Conference of 1922. The treaty resulted in the reduction of the tonnage of each nation's warships and agreed to keep a balance with the signatories. Kellong Briand Pact was an international agreement initiated by France and United States in 1928. The two nations agreed jointly to denounce war as a matter of national policy, but defensive war not prohibited. The treaty had no expiration date and there were no provisions for amending the agreement. The main culprit for the economic decline during the interwar period was the First World War itself. The World War I led to innumerable suffering and material destruction. Living conditions in Europe dipped considerably due to the sufferings of the war. Other major cause for European economic stagnation was the Great Depression of 1929. The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited the sale of arms and ammunition to the warring countries and banned Americans from traveling in the ships of the warring countries. The Neutrality Act of 1936 extended those bans and added another clause to ban extending loans or credit to the nations at war. In the background of the Spanish Civil War, the congress reacted by expanding the neutrality laws to civil conflicts. Soon the legislation was passed prohibiting the Americans from traveling in the ships of the warring countries and empowered the President to identity the goods that could be sold to the warring countries on cash and carry basis. Munich Conference was held at Munich in Germany in 1938 when Austria was annexed by Adolf Hitler. The main countries who attended the conference were Germany, Britain, France and Italy. At the Munich conference in 1938, Britain and France followed a policy of appeasement and agreed to give Hitler, Sudetenland, the German speaking part of Czechoslovakia in return for peace. The major event which occurred on September 1, 1939 was invasion of Poland by Germany. Blitzkrieg was the kind of military tactic adopted by Germany during the World War II with great success. Its literal meaning is lightening war or surprise attack. The principal countries of the Axis powers were Germany, Italy and Japan. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria and installed a puppet government over a newly declared independent state called Manchukuo. Soon Japan bombed the parts of Shanghai in China to protect the Japanese interests. During the turbulent years of World War II, America followed a policy of isolation, but Roosevelt allowed the allies (France and Britain) to carry arms on "cash and carry" basis. The policy of neutrality and isolation came to an end with the Lend Lease Act of 1941. The American First Committee sharply criticized the American involvement in the World War II. They argued that lend and lease legislation would put America in danger by putting away its arms and ammunitions to Great Britain. The committee said that act gave the chief executive dictatorial powers that would allow American president to send merchant ships to danger. The committee called on the pubic to stop the congress from passing the bill. During the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt, Europe was embroiled in World War II. The president declared in 1941 that the presence of Axis powers in the waters where America considered as vital to its defense would result in violent action. He ordered to shoot on sight German submarines operating in the American waters of defense. The plan, "Defeating Germany First" was aimed by the Allies to help Britain in the war against Germany in Europe. Pacific Theater was the term used to describe the operation of the US against Japan in the Pacific Ocean. Battle of the Midway was the decisive battle the turned the tide of the war in the Pacific theater. The Battle of the Leyte Gulf was the largest naval battle in the World War II. The Battle of the Bulge (1944-1945) was the last major battle fought by Nazi Germany against the Allies. Operation Torch was the Allied invasion of North Africa under the command of the General Eisenhower. Remagen was the place where the last bridge, Ludendroff was located while the US troops entered Germany. The World War II boosted the economy of US and there was no unemployment. Large number of women joined the industries where men had worked. The federal government encouraged Americans to conserve and recycle materials. The necessities of war influenced even the fashion. The government encouraged the people to cut back the use of food stuffs and consumer goods. The government agency responsible for rationing in US during the World War II was US Office of the Price Administration (OPA). The head of the US War Production Board between 1942-44 was Donald M. Nelson. The primary concern of the American government with regard to the economy during the war was the inflation. The fastest speed allowed by law during the war was 55 MPH. X stickers were given to the members of the congress and other very important people. The state which received the most of the migrants during the second world war was California. Double V campaign was aimed to gain victory against Axis powers and racial prejudices in United States. Reporter Ernie Pyle commonly found on 79 beaches of Normandy, cigarettes and writing paper, when US troops stormed the area in 1944. Some of the things used by the Germans to fortify the beaches of Normandy stormed by U.S. troops in June 1944 were concrete bunkers. Age of Affluence: Characteristics of America's post-World War II "boom" on the economy and family life: The World War II resulted in the economic boom. Industries like automobiles, and electronics grew to a great extent as a result of the baby boom. The growth could be seen the income of the common man. More and more people joined the middle class. There was a high demand for single family homes and use of cars increased. Sunbelt the first major planned, prefabricated suburb build after World War II. Positive features of the New Suburbia: The new suburbs are filled with economic activity and at the same time is filled with greenery

Coming of World War II Main consequence of the "Five Power Treaty" 1921-22 The Five Power Treaty was otherwise known as the Washington Naval Conference of 1922. The treaty resulted in the reduction of the tonnage of each nation's warships and agreed to keep a balance with the signatories. The powers agreed to stop constructi

Abraham Lincoln: Positions & Views on Slavery

How did Abraham Lincoln interpret the Declaration of Independence as it relates to Americans? Is there anything that Lincoln said about African Americans that surprises you? Is so, what is it? Why are you surprised? What is the significance of Lincoln's interpretation of the Declaration of Independence for Americans today.

Mikhail Gorbachev assumed the leadership of Soviet Union when he was elected as the General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1985. Gorbachev was a man of vision and in 1985 he started a movement against corruption and alcoholism. The domestic policy of Gorbachev was based mainly under three programs. They were Perestroika or rebuilding, Glasnost or public voicing, and demokratizatsiya or democratizations. Gorbachev encouraged private ownership of the industry and agriculture. Inspite of his efforts to introduce liberalization and market economy, the conservatives did not allow the reforms to introduce effectively. Gorbachev also shifted the traditional policy of confrontation towards the west. In 1987, he had signed with Ronald Reagan Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF). In February 1989, on the basis of an accord between Pakistan and Afghanistan, Soviet Union decided to withdraw her troops from Afghanistan. Gorbachev also kept a sound relation with China. In 1991, Bush and Gorbachev met in Moscow to sign the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I). The defensive organization of Warsaw pact was changed into a political organization and he established diplomatic relations with many countries. Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Prize for peace in 1990 for trying to reduce the cold war tensions between the super powers. In 1991, he survived a coup from the hardliners, but he did not relent from his work of democratization of Soviet society. He underlined the need for the proper management of the resources. The oppressive policies of the Communist regimes were bare opened before the soviet people. The people were convinced of the need for a democratic government and openness. There is no doubt that Gorbachev was a patriot. His policies of perestroika and glasnost led to the breakup of Soviet Union, but it resulted in the building up of a democratic society and nation.

The revolutionary policies of Michael Gorbachev changed the course of the history of Soviet Union. Gorbachev assumed the leadership of Soviet Union when he was elected as the General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1985. Gorbachev was a man of vision and in 1985 he started a movement against corruption and alcoholism. His