Information on the Civil Rights movement:
Martin Luther King Jr. and the nonviolent protest movement vs Malcolm X and the changing nature of the movement later in the 1960s.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 25, 2018, 3:26 am ad1c9bdddf
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1. Martin Luther King Jr. and the nonviolent protest movement vs Malcolm X and the changing nature of the movement later in the 1960s
Malcolm X and Martin Luther King had different views of the direction the Civil Right Movement were in stark contract.
For example, Malcolm X's did not favor integration of blacks and white. His curt explanation of why he did not favor integration of blacks with whites in the United States was: "You don't integrate with a sinking ship." As the chief spokesman of the Nation of Islam, a Black Muslim organization led by Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X argued that America was too racist in its institutions and people to offer hope to blacks. The solution proposed by the Nation of Islam was a separate nation for blacks to develop themselves apart from what they considered to be a corrupt white nation destined for divine destruction.
Compared to Malcolm X's black separatism, Martin Luther King, Jr. offered what he considered "the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest" as a means of building an integrated community of blacks and whites in America. He rejected what he called "the hatred and despair of the black nationalist," believing that the fate of black Americans was "tied up with America's destiny." Despite the enslavement and segregation of blacks throughout American history, King had faith that "the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God" could reform white America through the nonviolent Civil Rights Movement. Perhaps no one else in the civil rights era gave as forceful a voice to the rage and frustration of Black Americans as Malcolm X. As he passionately spoke to America, Malcolm brazenly challenged white domination and demanded change. In doing so, he struck a nerve with a large segment of the Black population and helped many find self-respect and racial pride.
Clearly, Malcolm's style and message stood in stark contrast to the leadership of the mainstream Civil Rights Movement, who favored nonviolent protests and integration to end discrimination. Malcolm's candid and often irreverent political views made him the most interviewed African-American leader by the press and, in 1959, the second-most sought-after college speaker. Malcolm affirmed fighting back if attacked and felt integration was demeaning .and that it would lead only to token accommodation by whites. He essentially concluded integration would have no effect on the urban Black underclass. This made him a nationalist who believed that African Americans should control their own institutions, economy, and politics. He additionally preached that self-determination would have to be realized "by any means necessary." www.black-collegian.com/issues/35thAnn/malcolm.shtml
Also see quotes of Malcolm X's quotes at URL: www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/malcolm_x.html
See quotes of Martin Luther King, Jr. at URL: www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/martin_luther_king_jr.html
Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. at URL: www.mlkonline.net/speeches.html
Speeches of Malcolm X's at URL: www.marxists.org/reference/archive/malcolm-x/index.htm
2. ...the changing nature of the movement later in the 1960s.
Kennedy's assassination resulted in President Lyndon Johnson maneuvering the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. This was a major victory for African Americans. This legislation "outlawed segregation in public places and prohibited racial and gender discrimination in employment practices." www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=5192However, there was a long way to go and things slowly progressed.
Take Voting Rights of 1965 as a prime example. The mid-1960s found most eligible black voters in the South still remained disfranchised. Voting rights struggles has a long history for the Black people. For example: "Following World War II, African Americans initiated local efforts to exercise the right to vote but faced strong and sometimes violent resistance from local whites. Organized initiatives to enfranchise blacks climaxed with the Summer Project of 1964. Popularly known as Freedom Summer, the Summer Project came under the auspices of the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), which included the SCLC, SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP. Targeting Mississippi, where in many counties no blacks were registered to vote, COFO launched a massive and largely unsuccessful voter-registration drive. White resistance was widespread and tainted by several killings. The effort did, however, capture the attention of ...
The solution provides, information, insight and advise into the Civil Rights movement of the 60's; in particular about Martin Luther King and the non-violent protest movement he led juxtaposed against Malcolm X's own movement in the late 60's. Resources are included in the text for further exploration of the topic.
Civil Rights Movement
Garrow and Sitkoff
1. Who in their essays present two sympathetic but different theories, of the early days of the African American Civil Rights Movement. The beginning determined the future course; the early leaders took real risks and sometimes died for their beliefs; the Movement, changed American society in fundamental ways; the Movement itself changed as Civil Rights changed in direction and meaning.
2. More importantly I'm looking for the early Civil Rights Movement from the points of view of Sitkoff and Garrow different historical emphases in Sitkoff's and Garrow's interpretations of this early Civil Rights Movement.
3. Did the "early" Civil Rights Movement change fundamentally after 1965 with the increasing importance of thinkers like Malcolm X and organizations like the Black Panthers?
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