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Six Sigma

Six sigma refers to a set of strategies, processes, and quality checks that ensure a high standard of quality for the products produced. Motorola originally developed six sigma in 1985.¹ However, six sigma only became famous after Jack Welch made it a central focus business strategy at General Electric in 1995.¹ The term six sigma originated from manufacturing terminology, especially terms associated with statistical analysis and modeling.¹

Generally, six sigma aims to improve the quality of process outputs by removing the causes of defects in manufacturing and business processes. It does this through using a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods. Each six sigma project follows a sequence of steps and has quantified value targets. Examples may include: process cycle time reduction, customer satisfaction, reduction in pollution, and cost reduction.²

A manufacturing process can be described by a sigma indicating the amount of defect-free products manufactured. 99.99966 percent of products manufactured need to be statistically defect-free to be represented by a sigma, which equates to just 3.4 defects per million manufactured.²

There are two project methodologies used by managers to implement six sigma: DMAIC and DMADV. DMAIC stands for: define the problem, measure key aspects of the current process, analyze data to investigate cause-and-effect relationships, improve current processes using mistake proofing and design experiments, and finally control future processes to ensure deviations are corrected.³ DMADV includes defining design goals, measuring characteristics critical to quality, analyzing to develop and design alternatives, designing an improved alternative, and verifying the design and implementing it.³

Six sigma involves the professionalizing of quality management functions, where before it was in the hands of the production floor and statisticians. There are five different roles that individuals can take in the six sigma system: leadership, champions, master black belts, black belts, and green belts. Executive leadership is responsible for setting up the vision for six sigma implementation.³ Champions take responsibility for six sigma implementation, while master black belts act as in-house coaches and devote 100 percent of their time to six sigma.³ Black belts apply six sigma to specific projects and green belts are employees who take up six sigma along with continuing their other job responsibilities.³



1. “The Inventors of Six Sigma.” Archived from The Original on November 6, 2005.
2. Antony, Jiju. “Pros and cons of Six Sigma: an academic perspective.” Archived from The Original on July 23, 2008.
3. Schroeder, Richard. (2000). Six Sigma. Random House Inc.

History of Lean Six Sigma

This Solution outlines the evolution of the concept of Lean Six Sigma which is basically a combination of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma.

Process Mapping and Six Sigma

Individual Portion Complete the following: •Using process mapping , present the new processes for check-in and checkout to management. •Pick 1 hotel offering ( concierge service) and write a new process map for it. Along with charts, give a detailed explanation of the new process and where such improvement will benefit

Correlation and Regression Between Relationships

For the most part, correlation is used to determine relationships (Do shorter people have smaller feet than taller people?), while regression is used to determine the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable (If I study longer, will my grades improve? The grades are dependent on the amount of time spent study

Linear regression in a surgical department

In the surgical department, explore quality situations and determine a problem or issue that requires the use of simple linear regression. 1. Explain why is it useful in this situation. 2. Provide background information about the situation. 3. Explain how to collect the data for the independent and dependent variable

ANOVA Application in a Surgical Department

In the surgical department: 1. Describe the product or service, the quality issue and why it is important. 2. Describe how the data would be collected and what the categories are in which you need to determine if there is a difference in the mean. 3. Why is it important to know, and what are the implications if the mean

Using Six Sigma for Testing Statistical Significance

1. Integrate statistical concepts and six sigma principles in the surgical department. 2. Form a hypothesis about the surgical department by choosing the appropriate test to conduct the hypothesis testing. 3. Assess cultural, international, and or global persectives in surgical department business.

Six sigma principles in the surgical department

1. Assistance is this to understand how to integrate the statistical concepts and six sigma principles in the surgical department. 2. Find some data that is available for the surgical department and form a hypothesis. 3. Choose an appropriate test to conduct the hypothesis testing. 4. Assess cultural, international and

Binomial Distribution Modeling: Defective Part Rate

Please help with the following problem. A manufacturer has determined that on one of its assembly lines, the defective part rate is 60000 PPM (Parts Per Million), corresponding to a probability of producing a defective part of 6%. You are a Quality Engineer and told by the manufacturer's accountants that they can afford for

Normal Distribution & Surgical Six Sigma

Understanding and using the normal distribution in the surgical department. Integrate the statistical concepts and six sigma principles that you've been studying and addressing the following questions : Can you find some Normal Distributions in the organization? Examples include order shipping time, machine dimensions, utili

Surgery Department: Gauge Verification

Discuss the product or use of products in the surgical department. Try to apply the Gauge Verification in this process. Show your understanding of how this Gauge Verification helps you understand the randomness and errors. Collect your own data to support your argument and assess cultural, international and/or global perspective

How to collect data and compute mean and variance

From the 3 examples of random variables in life, discuss how would you go about collecting data to determine the mean and variance of each: 1. The number of times you tell your 3 kids to put down the toilet sit in a two week period, so the dogs stop drinking out of it especially with the poisonous toilet bowl cleaner. 2. H

Six Sigma and Total Quality at Kraft Foods

Does Kraft Foods company have either a TQ or Six Sigma program? Discuss how it works. Discuss one of the quality project that you know of, and what makes this program succeed (or fail, if that is the case). Be specific and discuss the various aspects of the project in terms of the concepts of quality and Six Sigma. I

Hypothesis Testing: Apple Inc.

Using Apple Inc. integrate the statistical concepts and six sigma principles that you've been studying in this module and turn in your three to four page paper addressing the following questions : 1. Find some data available for that organization and form a hypothesis. 2. Please choose the appropriate test to conduct the hypot

Kraft: Cost of Quality

Apply the concept of the cost of quality to Kraft Foods. Do research on Kraft P3 (Protein)product line. Discuss how the company utilizes the cost of quality concept. Find relevant and recent information about Kraft Foods company. The quality problems it's experiencing, the costs of poor quality that occurred, or what it did t

Statistical Analysis of a Sample with Microsoft Excel

Assignment Overview Take the situation introduced on the Home page of this module: Suppose you want to know if a new design of a product is actually better than the current product. For example, your design team is working on increasing the speed of the KX Speed Drill. You have produced a small batch of the new design, the K

Apple, Inc.: Normal Distribution and Six Sigma

Consider the organization APPLE INC: 1. Can you find some Normal Distributions in the organization? Examples include order shipping time, machine dimensions, utility usage, etc. 2. Can you show how Six Sigma can be applied in the organization?

Simplified Gauge Verification

Suppose in the manufacturing process, a part needs to be 2.5 inches. Due to the random errors, it cannot be 2.5 inches exactly. Here are readings from three inspectors in a verification test. Find the % of gauge error. How does the gauge verification improve the performance of a manufacturing process? See attachment for data.

Six Sigma in Project Management

What does the Define phase of Six Sigma consist of as well as well as what Six Sigma tools can be of value in Project Management ?

Use of Deisgn on Experiment (DOE) in Optimization

Read this case and then determine what type of situation this is that DOE was used effectively. Fireman, Jerry. (n.d.), Rich Products Uses Statistics to Improve the Taste of Natural Bread Dough. Retrieved on Sept. 8, 2009, from The paper should first review and summarize the ca

Lessons Learned Analysis

One key concept in project management is to learn from previous projects. The Lessons Learned review allows an organization to collect and document the results of both successful and failed projects. Give an overview of a project you were involved with as a leader or team member. Choose three of the project areas listed below

Continuous Improvement Processes

Many organizations focus on continuous improvement processes to aid efficiency improvement, reduce waste, and/or maximize profits. In your posting, discuss three of the continuous improvement foci areas you have experienced in your job or organization and discuss the effectiveness (or benefits) of such initiatives. Decide what

DMAIC Analyze Phase

5. Broad Organizational Awareness of the Project Engaging the entire organization in the Six Sigma process is a crucial element of overall success. Each team has a responsibility to ensure that the key stakeholders are aware of the project. Executing an effective communication plan is a key element of the overall project plan

ABC Manufacturing Company: Quality Programs

You have just been hired as the director of process improvement, a new position, by the VP of Operations for the ABC Manufacturing Company. ABC has been plagued by both internal and external vendor issues; the vendor issues involved repeated late deliveries and poor quality, while internally poor deliveries to customers resulted

Dramatic Improvements as a Result of TQM

Do an Internet search, supported with references and in-text citations, for a real company example that saw dramatic improvements as a result of adopting a formal TQM program (pick any one). Name of the company, what it does, and the kind of competition it faces The specific event or issue that drove it toward embarking on

How to reduce defects through six sigma - Lit Review

I need to complete a review of literature for my action research project and provide a summary of at least eight sources that I can use as references with 5 of them peer-reviewed journals. The action research project is "How to reduce defects through six sigma"

How to reduce defects through six sigma

Please help me to prepare a problem to be studied that is pertinent to business and management. I was thinking about something related to six sigma. Could you please provide a list of references for further use in my project and could you suggest areas to research further please. Thank you.

Total Quality Management and Quality Circles

I am familiar with what was known as Quality Circles or Total Quality Management that involved all employees in the company working on continuous improvement in their jobs and related processes. And I am familiar with the more recent paradigm of Six Sigma. But I am not clear on really how these two approaches are different and t

Tik-a-Lock, Inc, Harriet Carter Co, Beta Gamma Sigma, Excel Electronics Company

Flexible budget preparation: Tik-a-Lock, Inc., manufactures travel locks. The budgeted selling price is $18 per lock, the variable cost is $12 per lock, and budgeted fixed costs are $12,000. 1. Prepare a flexible budget for output levels of 6,000 locks and 9,000 locks for the month ended April 30, 2011. 8-B3 You have bee

Identify 3 potential Six Sigma projects relate dto a logistics company

Business Case: Customers are not receiving orders in a timely fashion, waiting several week(s) to receive their orders due to poor efficiency and testing times of blades. TCQ is extremely high due to (hidden factory) as a result of shipping defective blades, RMA's, accounting, and shipping charges. Responding and solving cust