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Human Anatomy and Physiology

The human body is comprised of trillions of cells that display emergent properties to produce a living organism that can produce coordinated movements, participate in intra- and inter- cell electrochemical communication, extract nutrients from food, transport nutrients to corporal regions, fight pathogenic infections and reproduce offspring. Cells conduct all these functions by specializing in a function, and signaling each other to work in conjunction for a desired response. The human anatomy is the morphology of the body including the head, neck, trunk, arms and legs whilst the physiology focuses on organs their associated organ systems.

Groups of cells that conduct a similar function and structure are called tissues, groups of different tissues form an organ; groups of organs make up an organ system, and finally organ systems that interact with each other form a living organism. Each system conducts homeostasis which is the maintenance of the internal environment by negative or a positive feedback. Negative feedback is the lessening of a specific activity to decrease the associated results, whilst positive feedback is the enhancement of a specific activity to increase the associated results in the internal body.

There are in total 12 systems, examples are the nervous, digestive, reproductive, musculoskeletal and immune system. Each system has a specific function in controlling organs, like the digestive system controls the alimentary canal which converts food into nutrients that cells can utilize. Systems interact with each other like the nervous system and musculoskeletal system, where the nervous system detects the stimuli and relays messages to the brain which then a response is produced by musculoskeletal system. Examples and functions can be seen in the diagram:

Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Categories within Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human Nervous System

Postings: 55

Human Nervous System coordinates responses to stimuli in the environment by using the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

Musculoskeletal System

Postings: 39

The Musculoskeletal system is the muscle system and skeletal system working in conjunction to help movement, support and blood flow in the body.

Digestive Systems

Postings: 15

The digestive system acts to break down larger food compounds down to nutrients that can be absorbed in the intestine and assimilated into cells.

Reproductive Systems

Postings: 25

Reproduction is a complex process where male and female gametes fuse to form a zygote, once fertilization has taken place the embryo develops in the female’s uterus for a period of nine months before birthing.

Immune System

Postings: 54

Immunology is the study of the immunity, it explores all aspects of how the human immune system responds to foreign pathogens, defense mechanisms of the body, and also immunological disorders and diseases.

Compare the autonomic control of defecation and micturition

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Nursing Case Study with General Knowledge Medications & Pharmacy

This is a discussion question for this Thursday. I thought that high blood pressure medication was acceptable if your NPO but still needed consent from the anesthesiologist or physician? Is there a protocol to remembering which is acceptable to give and which isn't? Your answer may be brief or extensive. I'm just trying to gain

Nursing Actions before Administering Lopressor, and Nitropaste

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Few questions base on case study on prostate

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Respiratory tract disease

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A 28-year-old graduate student complains of chronic heartburn that intensifies when lying in bed. The condition became prevalent during his qualifying exams five years previously and has recurred as he is approaching his final thesis defense. The patient had been taking omeprazole (Prilosec™) to manage the symptoms of acid ref

Glomerular filtration rate and its regulation

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Drugs, Smoking and the Autonomic System

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Oxygen Therapy and the Respiratory System

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Function of Tonsils in protecting against pathogens

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Lymph and Lymphedema

1. Marlene has had lymph nodes removed from her armpit. Why would removal of lymph nodes cause swelling in her hand and arm? 2. Is lymph more similar to blood plasma or to interstitial fluid? Explain your answer. 3. (fill in the blank) Fluid from the legs passes through lymphatic vessels that enter the abdomen through the lumb

Case of Metabolic Syndrome

Larissa was 25 years old, and was seeing a new doctor because she'd recently moved to a different city, and needed to refill her birth control prescription. A nurse weighed her, measured her blood pressure, and sent her into an exam room to wait for the doctor. Dr. Zamora introduced herself, asked a few personal questions ab

Asthma: Pathophysiology and Treatment

Asthma Case Study Archie was in the E.R. with asthma symptoms for the third time this year. Archie, a 25-year-old artist, had no health insurance and although he'd gotten a prescription for a corticosteroid-based inhaler, the medication cost several hundred dollars each month, so instead, he'd been relying on over-the-counte

Diabetes insipidus

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Malarial Infection Diagnosis

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Case study on congestive heart failure

Please help me with these questions based on case study (at the end of my post) 1. Varicose veins are an indication of what problem associated with CHF? 2. What drugs are commonly prescribed to deal with CHF (please give at least 3 different classes of cardiac medication)? 3. What changes to his lifestyle can this patient imp

Congestive Heart Failure and Third-Degree Heart Block

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Diabetes Case Study

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Cardiovascular and Lymphatic System

1. Please explain how lymphatic system complements the function of the cardiovascular system? 2. Briefly explain the role that the kidneys play in regulating cardiovascular functions. 3. Explain the overall function of the entire cardiovascular system including all three components. (Do not, for example, say that the cardi

Hemodynamics (Blood flow, Pressure and Resistance)

Please help me with these. I am looking for not a very long answers to help me understand this topic better 1. What structural features of arteries and veins lead to an equilibrium in blood flow into and out of any given organ? Consider the relationship of flow to pressure and resistance in your answer (F=P/R). 2. Explain wh

Pure autonomic failure

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Autonomic and Endocrine System

1. All membrane receptors for hormones use second messengers, neurotransmitters use second messengers in some situations and direct-effect ion channels in others. Briefly explain the reasons for this difference. 2. Compare the regulation of a system by the autonomic nervous system with its regulation by the endocrine system.

Fibromyalgia: pathopsysiology and treatment

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Case study on primary hypothyroidism

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Value of ATP, Channel vs. Carrier Proteins & Hormonal Effects

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Cranial Nerves Case Study + Other Muscular Disorders

1. What diagnosis would include the following points? - onset around 5 years of age - abnormal gait - no reflex signs (neurological exam relatively clear) - difficulty walking - trouble getting up from sitting or lying position - enlarged calf muscles with firm, rubbery feeling 2. What muscles would be related to the symp

Membrane Potentials, Calcium and Muscle Contraction

1. Explain, briefly, why the 10-fold difference in concentration of Na+ across the membrane is important to excitable membranes. 2. How do voltage-gated calcium channels relate to electrical activity of the neuronal vs. sarcolemmal membrane? Concentrate on the differences. Keep your answer brief (3-4 sentences). 3. Why are m

Bicarbonate Blood Buffer and Competitive Inhibition in Drugs

1. Why would administering bicarbonate to a patient be advisable if his blood pH was too low? What is the bicarbonate going to do to adjust the pH of the blood? 2. A drug works by binding to the active site of an enzyme. Why would that cause a physiological change?

Picking Online Resources for Studying Human Biology

Designated as "Journ" in the grade book.) You have the chance to search the Internet for websites that may be of use to a human biology student seeking a resource for study. You'll keep a journal of this, and in the end, declare which website you feel is the most useful to a student in this course. Browse the web for course-real