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Oxygen Therapy and the Respiratory System

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1. Explain why oxygen (through a tube or mask) is provided to patients who cannot breath (ventilate). There needs to be some reference to the partial pressures involved.
2. Why is the trachea surrounded by rings of cartilage while the esophagus is not?
3. In what respiratory structures will you find pseudostratified epithelium (provide at least four separate locations)?

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Oxygen is supplied to patients who cannot properly ventilate in order to increase the amount of oxygen in the body tissues. Within the tissues of the body, the partial pressure of oxygen can be increased when oxygen therapy is supplied compared to the partial pressure of oxygen than can diffuse into body tissue's from breathing in normal atmospheric conditions.

A common reason that oxygen therapy is used at home is to help people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Often ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides the foundation to complete three specific questions pertaining to the respiratory system. A journal article is provided for additional evidence. The solution consists of over 200 words.

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Diagnoses case study

Case Study One
Present Illness

Mrs. Jones is a 56-year-old Caucasian female who recently moved to Arizona from Minnesota and is a new patient. She has been feeling tired lately, which she attributes to her allergies. She has been taking Claritin®, but for the past month, it has not been working well. She complains of a runny nose that is worse in the morning, associated with sneezing and an itchy throat. She also complains that her breathing is more difficult. She becomes dyspneic on minimal exertion and can hear herself wheezing throughout the day. She reports using the albuterol inhaler more frequently than every 4 hours. Her productive morning cough seems worse, but the color of her sputum has not changed. She denies discolored nasal drainage, headache, facial pain, loss of appetite, chest pain, edema, and fevers.
Medical History

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and seasonal allergies; complaining of recent inability to sleep through the night
Family History

Her family history is noncontributory.

Claritin® 10 mg q am and Albuterol MDI 2 puffs q 4 hours prn.

Social History

Smoked 2 packs per day for 30 years; quit 2 years ago.
Physical Examination

This is a w/d, w/n who is appropriate and cooperative. Vital signs are: Bp 128/72, pulse 88 and regular, respirations 20. She has dark circles under both eyes (allergic shiners), lungs have bilateral basilar wheezing, heart is regular without murmurs, abd is soft, nontender, and BS present.

O2 saturation 92% at room air at rest; spirometry reveals FEV1 = 45%, FEV1/FVC = 65%.

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