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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Body Metabolism

Sports scientists distinguish between aerobic fitness (as achieved, for example, by long distance running) and anaerobic fitness (as achieved by sprinting exercise). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Why have they chosen these particular terms to describe these two

The body Metabolism

Involving the glycolysis, what is the net gain of ATP? What does "net" mean? For each turn of the Kreb's cycle, how much ATP is produced? How many molecules of CO2 are produced? What is the significance of stripping off high-energy electrons from the pyruvate?

The Digestion System

How is the villus the functional unit of the small intestine? What is the structure and function and the enzymes found there. What is the importance of the surface area to the functioning villi? What an approiate way to counsel a friend who is overweight and blames herself for a lack of self-control?


#1 How did the theory of biogenesis lead the way for the germ theory of disease? (1pt.) #2 In 1864, Lister observed that patients recovered completely from simple fractures, but compound fractures had "disastrous consequences." He knew that the application of phenol (carbolic acid) to fields in the town of Carlisle prevent

Infection & Immunity

The interactions and origins of the different types of T cells and B cells and the role of "recognition." Description of their connection in a specific immune response.

Immunity & Infectious Diseases

Why are the symptoms of a cold similar every time? What is the role of the mast cells? How is it that a person becomes immune to a particular infection once she or he has recovered?

Need help answering questions below

T cell response to T-cell-dependent antigen reqiures: a) typically a protein antigen b) binding of T cell to a Class II MHC receptor on a macrphage c) binding of T cell to a site on the antigen d) interleukin-1 activating the T helper cell e) all of the choices are correct Antitoxins: a) contain modified bacterial e

Case Study: Analysis of Cause of Death

So I am studying my micro book, and came across a case study. I am hoping a T.A may be able to assist me in answering the 4 questions. The case study is as follows: In the summer of 1999 you are working as a triage nurse in the Emergency department of a hospital. A young-athletic man in his early 20's is helped into the

a case of respiratory alkalosis

Using the following sets of blood values, name the acid-base imbalance (acidosis or alkalosis), this job determines its cause (metabolic or respiratory), decides whether the condition is being compensated for and cites at least one possible cause for the imbalance: pH=7.3, PCO2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO3- = 18 mEq/L.

The kidney and blood loss

You have just been in an accident and experienced substantial blood loss. What autoregulatory mechanisms in the kidney will be initiated to maintain filtration pressure? If blood loss occurs, what further mechanisms are used to maintain pressure? Please be detailed and do not copy and paste from a website.

Kidney Filtration

Describe the three pressures involved in the process of filtration. Give a brief description of what would occur if a kidney stone was present. Which of the three pressures would increase? How would this effect filtration? Please do not copy and paste from a website. Be detailed.


While visiting a foreign country, you inadvertently drink the water, even though you have been advised not to. You contact an intestinal disease that causes severe diarrhea. How would you expect your condition to affect your blood pH, urine pH and pattern of ventilation?

Digestive Enzymes are explained.

You have completed a meal consisting of steak, baked potato and a vegetable. Starting with the salivary glands, and including the stomach, gallbladder, small intestine and pancreas describe each enzyme or material that would be released to help with the digestion of this meal. This scenario is investigated thoroughly.

Stomach problems and vitamin deficiencies

A patient was experiencing stomach problems and was starting to show signs of vitamin deficiencies. Which vitamin would be most affected with a stomach pathology and why? How would supplements be administered and why? Amy was also placed on an antibiotic for a sore throat and it also destroyed bacteria in the colon. How would th


If the pacemaker of the heart generates it's own beat, why is the sympathetic and parasympathetic attached to the pacemaker? How and why would the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses be called upon? What regulates this mechanism? Be very specific.

Spinal Cord Anatomy

Please indicate which EACH one of these descriptions is (either afferect, efferent, both afferent and efferent, or association): 1. neuron type found in posterior horn 2. neuron type found in anterior horn 3. neuron type in dorsal root ganglion 4. fiber type in ventral root 5. fiber type in dorsal root 6. fiber type in spi

Back muscles.

Answer each of the following: a. An accident victim was not wearing a seat belt and was thrown from his car. He was pronounced dead at the scene. An autopsy revealed the cause of death was a spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis of the phrenic and intercostal nerves. Why was this injury fatal? Include an explanation of the

Disease of the areolar connective tissue.

If a disorder existed that affected areolar connective tissue, what organ structures and functions would be affected? Include at least two examples. Also include a description of the types of fibers and cells found within areolar tissue. Be detailed.

Classification of Joints

How are joints classified? Explain the classification of joints based on structural and functional characteristics.

Anatomy and Physiology of Bones

Which category of bones (long, short, flat, irregular) has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume? What type of bone is the phalanx classified as? What two types of bone are the major submembranous site of osteoclasts? What type of bone is the major submembranous site of osteoblasts? What is th

Heirarchy of anatomical organization of the kidneys

I need to correlate the microscopic sturctures (cells) to the gross stuctures of the kidneys. I need to integrate into the response the heirarchy of anatomical organization from the cellular level to the organ level of the kidneys. Also, describe how the function of the kidneys correlates to the anatomical structures described

Case Study: Neck Injuries and Partial Paralysis of Limbs

A 22 year old woman was in a motor accident with resultant neck injuries that led to partial paralysis of the upper and lower limbs. Sher reports that almost immediately after her chest felt heavy. Doctors in the ER observed that she was dyspneic. Her pulmonary function values were: vital capacity 650 ml min vent vol-6L/min

Physiology case study

I am given this info: My comments are in brackets A 26 year-old female prisoner begins a hunger strike to protest what she considers unfair prison policies. She drinks only tap water, and her only exercise is two dailyt half hour walks at approx 2.5 mph. The temp in her cell is kept at 72F. her starting weight is 70 kg (154 lb

Knee joints

Predict the consequences of of limiting movement at the knee joint. Based on my reading, I'm confused as to whther the various knee injuries and disorders associated wih the knee are examples of such consequences. Please help!!!

Need help with two questions.

You have just been in an accident and have experienced substantial blood loss. What autoregulatory mechanisms in the kidney will be initiated to maintain filtration pressure? Describe this mechanism in detail. If blood loss continues, what will occur to the autoregulatory mechanism? Given the following lab values, answer the