A pediatrician examining an infant found a large swelling in the lower part of the infants back over the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebra. The summit of the swelling had an oval raw area from which a clear fluid was discharging. The legs were hyperextended and feet were held in a position of talipes calcaneus. What is the pro
Describe the craniosacral outflow of the ANS.
What neurotransmitter is released at the preganglionic synapses of the sympathetic division? at the postganglionic? What neurotransmitter is released at the parasympathetic preganglionic synapse? at the postganglionic?
For what reason is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system known as the thoracolumbar outflow?
Several children attending the same day care center developed red, inflamed eyes and eyelids. What is the most likely cause and name of this condition? Sue, age 70 recently underwent surgery for otosclerosis. The operation was a failure and did not improve her condition. What was the purpose of the surgery, and exactly wha
What area of the brain is most directly involved in mediating autonomic reflexes?
List the receptor subtypes for ACh and NE, and indicate the major sites where each type is found.
I explain how a crossed-extensor reflex exemplifies both serial and parallel processing.
Compare and contrast flexor and crossed-extensor reflexes.
(a) Define plexus. (b) Indicate the spinal roots of origin of the four major nerve plexuses, and name the general body regions served by each.
(a) Describe the formation and composition of a spinal nerve. (b) Name the branches of a spinal nerve (other than the rami communicantes), and indicate their distribution.
A man in his early 70s was having problems chewing his food. He was asked to stick out his tongue. It deviated to the right, and its right side was quite wasted. What cranial nerve was impaired? Bob a couch potato likes to eat a very large meal in the evening. After the meal, his wife asks him to help clean the dishes, bu
Describe the functional problems that would be experienced by a person in which these fiber tracts have been cut: (a) lateral spinothalamic, (b) anterior and posterior spinocerebellar, (c) tectospinal
All of the following descriptions refer to specific ascending pathways except one: (a) they include the fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus, which terminate in the thalamus; (b) they include a chain of three neurons; (c) their connections are diffuse and polymodal; (d) they are concerned with precise transmission of one
Describe the spinal cord, depicting its extent, its composition of gray and white matter, and its spinal roots.
(a) What is the function of the basal nuclei? (b) Which basal nuclei form the lentiform nucleus? (c) Which arches over the diencephalon?
(a) Name the hemisphere involved with most people's ability to draw. (b) Provide the major function of each: primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, somatosensory association area, primary sensory area, visual and auditory areas, prefrontal cortex, Wernicke's and Broca's areas
(a) What is the advantage of having a cerebrum that is highly convoluted? (b) What term is used to indicate its grooves? Its outward folds? (c) What groove divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres? (d) What divides the parietal from the frontal lobe? The parietal from the temporal lobe?
What is the polarized membrane state? How is it maintained? (Note the relative roles of both passive and active mechanisms.)
(a) What is myelin? (b) How does the myelination process differ in the CNS and PNS?
(a) Describe the composition and function of the cell body. (b) How are axons and dendrites alike? In what ways (structurally and functionally) do they differ?
Explain both the anatomical and functional divisions of the nervous system. Include the subdivisions of each.
1) What is responsible for the banding pattern seen in skeletal muscle cells? 2)What is the functions of tendons? How is a tendon different from an aponeurosis? How is it similar? 3)How do isotonic and isometric contractions different ? 4) The sternocleidomastoid muscles help to flex the neck. What are their antagonist
Name three muscles or, muscle groups used as sites for intramuscular injections. Which is most often used in babies? Tom was advised by his doctor to lose weight and start jogging. He began to jog daily. On the sixth day, he was forced to jump out of the way of a speeding car. He heard a snapping sound that was immediatel
Detailed not needed, just verifying choice 1. Which of the following does NOT compress the abdomen ______________. latissimus dorsi rectus abdominis external oblique transversus abdominis internal oblique 2. Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unabl
True or false: Most muscles contain a predominance of one skeletal muscle fiber type. Explain the reasoning behind your choice.
Name two muscles in each of the following compartments or regions: (a) thenar eminence (ball of thumb), (b) posterior compartment of forearm, (c) anterior compartment of forearm?deep muscle group, (d) anterior muscle group in the arm, (e) muscles of mastication, (f) third muscle layer of the foot, (g) posterior compartment of le
List all (six) possible movements that can occur at the shoulder joint and name the prime mover(s) of each movement. Then name their antagonists.
(a) Name the four muscle pairs that act in unison to compress the abdominal contents. (b) How does their arrangement (fiber direction) contribute to the strength of the abdominal wall? (c) Which of these muscles can effect lateral rotation of the spine? (d) Which can act alone to flex the spine?
Name and describe the action of muscles used to shake your head no and to nod yes.