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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Cerebral Hemisphere

Why is it so important that the outer portion of the cerebral hemisphere (cortex) is convoluted?


What causes hydrocephalus and why is it more serious in adults than kids?

Alzheimers & dehydration

What part of the brain - where - would be affected if a combative and confused Alzheimer's patient was hospitalized with dehydration? Please explain where the brain may be affected to lead to dehydration.

Biological Radioactivity Test - Theoretical

Remember the nuclear accident at Chernobyl (former Soviet Union - now the territory of Ukraine) in 1986? A scientist suspects that the food in a nearby ecosystem may have been contaminated with radioactive nitrogen over a period of months. Which substances in plants and animals could be examined for radioactivity to test


Using the negative feedback system, explain how osmoreceptors and CO2 receptors maintain water balance and respiratory rates. Include a diagram. How are micturation and defecation reflexes different? NOTE: Moved from Physiology to Biology to expose question to different Online TAs.

Diagram amino acid adsorption in the small intestinal lumen.

i need help diagraming the process of the following instructions. please help me. On a single page, diagram removal of an amino acid from protein by a peptidase in the intestinal lumen, followed by absorption of the amino acid. This process will include an epithelial cell actively transporting the an amino acid from the lumen

Twitch contraction

Hi-Please explain what the refractory period is and when it happens-before or after relaxation? Thanks.

This job compares cerebral cortexes.

I understand that a mammal brain with a relatively smooth cerebral cortex would have a smaller surface area compared to a mammal brain with many sulci. This job examines the effect on the habits of these mammals in respect of feeding, breeding etc.

Body Metabolism

Sports scientists distinguish between aerobic fitness (as achieved, for example, by long distance running) and anaerobic fitness (as achieved by sprinting exercise). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Why have they chosen these particular terms to describe these two

The body Metabolism

Involving the glycolysis, what is the net gain of ATP? What does "net" mean? For each turn of the Kreb's cycle, how much ATP is produced? How many molecules of CO2 are produced? What is the significance of stripping off high-energy electrons from the pyruvate?

The Digestion System

How is the villus the functional unit of the small intestine? What is the structure and function and the enzymes found there. What is the importance of the surface area to the functioning villi? What an approiate way to counsel a friend who is overweight and blames herself for a lack of self-control?


#1 How did the theory of biogenesis lead the way for the germ theory of disease? (1pt.) #2 In 1864, Lister observed that patients recovered completely from simple fractures, but compound fractures had "disastrous consequences." He knew that the application of phenol (carbolic acid) to fields in the town of Carlisle prevent

Infection & Immunity

The interactions and origins of the different types of T cells and B cells and the role of "recognition." Description of their connection in a specific immune response.

Immunity & Infectious Diseases

Why are the symptoms of a cold similar every time? What is the role of the mast cells? How is it that a person becomes immune to a particular infection once she or he has recovered?

Need help answering questions below

T cell response to T-cell-dependent antigen reqiures: a) typically a protein antigen b) binding of T cell to a Class II MHC receptor on a macrphage c) binding of T cell to a site on the antigen d) interleukin-1 activating the T helper cell e) all of the choices are correct Antitoxins: a) contain modified bacterial e

What might have killed him?

So I am studying my micro book, and came across a case study. I am hoping a T.A may be able to assist me in answering the 4 questions. The case study is as follows: In the summer of 1999 you are working as a triage nurse in the Emergency department of a hospital. A young-athletic man in his early 20's is helped into the

Understanding characteristics that humans share with all organisms; understanding anatomy and physiology List 10 characteristics that humans share with all organisms.

a case of respiratory alkalosis

Using the following sets of blood values, name the acid-base imbalance (acidosis or alkalosis), this job determines its cause (metabolic or respiratory), decides whether the condition is being compensated for and cites at least one possible cause for the imbalance: pH=7.3, PCO2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO3- = 18 mEq/L.

The kidney and blood loss

You have just been in an accident and experienced substantial blood loss. What autoregulatory mechanisms in the kidney will be initiated to maintain filtration pressure? If blood loss occurs, what further mechanisms are used to maintain pressure? Please be detailed and do not copy and paste from a website.

Kidney Filtration

Describe the three pressures involved in the process of filtration. Give a brief description of what would occur if a kidney stone was present. Which of the three pressures would increase? How would this effect filtration? Please do not copy and paste from a website. Be detailed.


While visiting a foreign country, you inadvertently drink the water, even though you have been advised not to. You contact an intestinal disease that causes severe diarrhea. How would you expect your condition to affect your blood pH, urine pH and pattern of ventilation?

Digestive Enzymes are explained.

You have completed a meal consisting of steak, baked potato and a vegetable. Starting with the salivary glands, and including the stomach, gallbladder, small intestine and pancreas describe each enzyme or material that would be released to help with the digestion of this meal. This scenario is investigated thoroughly.

Stomach problems and vitamin deficiencies

A patient was experiencing stomach problems and was starting to show signs of vitamin deficiencies. Which vitamin would be most affected with a stomach pathology and why? How would supplements be administered and why? Amy was also placed on an antibiotic for a sore throat and it also destroyed bacteria in the colon. How would th


If the pacemaker of the heart generates it's own beat, why is the sympathetic and parasympathetic attached to the pacemaker? How and why would the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses be called upon? What regulates this mechanism? Be very specific.

Reflex arcs

You accidentally step on a sharp piece of metal with your bare foot. Trace the reflex arcs set in motion by this accident. Name the reflex types. How do you remain standing when you pick up one foot? Be specific.

Psychosomatic illness

What could be a possible explanation for psychosomatic illness? What anatomical structures and functions could help explain this phenomena? Be specific.

Spinal Cord Anatomy

Please indicate which EACH one of these descriptions is (either afferect, efferent, both afferent and efferent, or association): 1. neuron type found in posterior horn 2. neuron type found in anterior horn 3. neuron type in dorsal root ganglion 4. fiber type in ventral root 5. fiber type in dorsal root 6. fiber type in spi