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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Muscle fatigue

Describe the cause(s) of muscle fatigue and define this term clearly

Sacromere and sliding filament theory

(a) Describe the structure of a sarcomere and indicate the relationship of the sarcomere to the myofilament. (b) Explain the sliding filament theory of contraction inlcuding a relaxed and a contracted sarcomere

An Analysis of Skeletal System Conditions

Please discuss the following: 1) After having a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion, one complained of a frontal headache and the right side of his face ached. What bony structures probably became infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold? 2) An elderly woman, stumbled while walking, she then felt a te

Thigh and leg bone

What is the anatomic name given to the bone that covers over the articulation between the thigh and the leg, and to what special bone group does this bone belong?

Sinuous curve

The clavicle can be palpated through its entire length and is said to follow a sinuous curve. What is meant by sinuous curve?

Vertebral curvatures

Of the normal vertebral curvatures, which are primary and which are secondary curvatures?

Knee problems

The knee has been called "a beauty and a beast". Provide several reasons that might explain the negative (beast) part of this description.

Joints and homeostasis

Discuss the relative value (to body homeostasis) of immovable, slightly moveable, and freely moveable joints.

Shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle

The major function of the shoulder girdle is flexibility. What is the major function of the pelvic girdle? Relate these functional differences to anatomical differences seen in these girdles.


A cell stimulated to increase its steroid production will have abundant____________. ribosomes, rough ER, smooth ER, Golgi apparatus or secretroy vesicles An epithelium built to withstand friction is _________________ simple squamous, simple columnar, stratified squamous, pseudostratified, or simple cuboidal Type of conn

Cell Anatomy and Physiology

6. Identify the earliest manifestation of cellular injury a. Accumulation of fat in the vacuoles of the cell b. Necrosis in the affected cells c. An accumulation of water within the cell d. Genetic derangements in cellular DNA and RNA 7. Select the best description of the arrangement of a cell membrane a. Carbohydrate bi

Urinary review questions

I have a 120 question review sheet only these 5 are giving me a problem. If you could explain each one, it will be greatly appreciated. 1. Compare contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate. 2. Explain the mechanism of tubular secretion, and explain it's importance in the urine formation process. 3. E


What type of rings are osteon made up of, and what are the chambers called that they house? What is found in these chambers?

Nerve Damage in the PNS & CNS

Please help with the following problem. Provide a detailed explanation and include diagrams. Explain why damage to peripheral nerve fibers is often reversible, whereas damage to the central nerve fibers rarely is.

Effect of Posture on pulse and blood pressure

What is the effect of posture (i.e. sitting, standing, lying down for 1 minute, lying down for 10 minutes and standing after lying down) on blood pressure and pulse rate. What systems are involved and why?

Repiratory volumes are defined.

What major air volume is left in the lungs after forcibly exhaling? A short debate between residual and expiratory reserve volume is included.


As we grow our bones increase in diameter, but the thickness of the bony collar of the shaft remains relatively constant. Why?

Residual volume

The residual volume of air in the lungs the amount expelled on a normal expiration b.remains until the chest cavity is opnened also called the minimal air volume d. is the amount forcefully exhaled also known as the complemental air We know that it's not a or c, but a different question was what major air

Intrathoracic pressure

Intrathoracic pressure: a. becomes equal to the external environmental air pressure by the action of the respiratory muscles b. is less than the atmospheric pressure during inspiration c. is less than atmospheric pressure during inhalation d. increases when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract e. is the


A 50 year-old male complained of weakness on the right half of his face, which quickly led to the facial paralysis of this side. He was unable to wrinkle his forehead, smile, show his teeth. He was also unable to close his right eye. Taste perception was distorted over the left anterior portion of the tongue. There was compl


1. Production of the gonadal sex hormones is A. relatively constant from fetal life to old age B. low until puberty, after which it becomes quite high and remains so until old age C. low until puberty, and remains so until old age D. high during fetal life, low during childhood, high during puberty, and then declin

Factors Affecting Action Potentials

Please help with the following problem. What factors determine if action potentials will be generated by a postsynaptics neuron that receives both excitatory and inhibitory input?

Advanced Physiology

1) If the atmospheric pressure is 752 mm Hg, and the partial pressure of nitrogen is 593 mm Hg, the partial pressure of oxygen would be A. 160 mm Hg B. 257 mm Hg C. 159 mm Hg D. 79 mm Hg 2) In nonstrenuous circumstances, after "unloading" oxygen at tissue capillaries, hemoglobin normally remains approximatel

Advanced physiology

1) A 22- year old man was in a motorcycle accident with resultant neck injuries that led to partial paralysis of the upper and lower limbs. Almost immediately his chest felt heavy and he became dyspneic. His pulmonary values: Vital capacity (supine) = 650 ml Minute ventilation (supine) = 6 L/min Respiratory rate (supine)


This is for an graduate immunology class. The question is: 1) Can someone explain why the MyD88 independant stimulation of TLR4 has been suggested? Any other little details about MyD88 (it is a hard topic to find) would be greatly appreciated! Thank you.