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Human Anatomy and Physiology


What neurotransmitter is released at the preganglionic synapses of the sympathetic division? at the postganglionic? What neurotransmitter is released at the parasympathetic preganglionic synapse? at the postganglionic?

Thoracolumbular outflow

For what reason is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system known as the thoracolumbar outflow?


Several children attending the same day care center developed red, inflamed eyes and eyelids. What is the most likely cause and name of this condition? Sue, age 70 recently underwent surgery for otosclerosis. The operation was a failure and did not improve her condition. What was the purpose of the surgery, and exactly wha

Nervous system

A man in his early 70s was having problems chewing his food. He was asked to stick out his tongue. It deviated to the right, and its right side was quite wasted. What cranial nerve was impaired? Bob a couch potato likes to eat a very large meal in the evening. After the meal, his wife asks him to help clean the dishes, bu

Specific ascending pathways

All of the following descriptions refer to specific ascending pathways except one: (a) they include the fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus, which terminate in the thalamus; (b) they include a chain of three neurons; (c) their connections are diffuse and polymodal; (d) they are concerned with precise transmission of one

Basal nuclei

(a) What is the function of the basal nuclei? (b) Which basal nuclei form the lentiform nucleus? (c) Which arches over the diencephalon?

Cerebrum: grooves/hemispheres/lobes

(a) What is the advantage of having a cerebrum that is highly convoluted? (b) What term is used to indicate its grooves? Its outward folds? (c) What groove divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres? (d) What divides the parietal from the frontal lobe? The parietal from the temporal lobe?


1) What is responsible for the banding pattern seen in skeletal muscle cells? 2)What is the functions of tendons? How is a tendon different from an aponeurosis? How is it similar? 3)How do isotonic and isometric contractions different ? 4) The sternocleidomastoid muscles help to flex the neck. What are their antagonist

Muscular system

Name three muscles or, muscle groups used as sites for intramuscular injections. Which is most often used in babies? Tom was advised by his doctor to lose weight and start jogging. He began to jog daily. On the sixth day, he was forced to jump out of the way of a speeding car. He heard a snapping sound that was immediatel

Muscular system

Detailed not needed, just verifying choice 1. Which of the following does NOT compress the abdomen ______________. latissimus dorsi rectus abdominis external oblique transversus abdominis internal oblique 2. Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unabl

Muscle groups

Name two muscles in each of the following compartments or regions: (a) thenar eminence (ball of thumb), (b) posterior compartment of forearm, (c) anterior compartment of forearm?deep muscle group, (d) anterior muscle group in the arm, (e) muscles of mastication, (f) third muscle layer of the foot, (g) posterior compartment of le

Muscle fatigue

Describe the cause(s) of muscle fatigue and define this term clearly

Sacromere and sliding filament theory

(a) Describe the structure of a sarcomere and indicate the relationship of the sarcomere to the myofilament. (b) Explain the sliding filament theory of contraction inlcuding a relaxed and a contracted sarcomere

An Analysis of Skeletal System Conditions

Please discuss the following: 1) After having a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion, one complained of a frontal headache and the right side of his face ached. What bony structures probably became infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold? 2) An elderly woman, stumbled while walking, she then felt a te

External ankle

What is the name of the distal expansion of the fibula (often referred to as the external ankle)?

Internal ankle

What is the name of the distal expansion of the tibia (often referred to as the internal ankle)?

Thigh and leg bone

What is the anatomic name given to the bone that covers over the articulation between the thigh and the leg, and to what special bone group does this bone belong?

Articulation with humerus and scapula

What is the name of the bony structure on the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus, and what does this structure's name mean, literally?

Greenstick fracture

Fractures of the clavicle, especially in children, are known as greenstick fractures. Describe this type of fracture

Sinuous curve

The clavicle can be palpated through its entire length and is said to follow a sinuous curve. What is meant by sinuous curve?

Hip bone

What three bones fuse to form the hip bone?


Why might falling on one's outstretched arm result in a fractured clavicle?

Joint movements

Joint movements may be nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, or multiaxial. Define what each of these terms means.