1. Explain how negative-feedback mechanisms control respiratory rates when a person is at rest and when a person is exercising.
2. A woman falls while skiing and accidentally is impaled by her ski pole. The pole passes through the abdominal body wall and into and through the stomach, pierces the diaphragm, and finally stops in the left lung. List, in order, the serous membranes the pole pierces.
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1.Explain how negative-feedback mechanisms control respiratory rates when a person is at rest and when a person is exercising.
Negative feedback mechanism occurs when the output of a system acts to oppose changes to the input attenuating or neutralizing the total effect.
The respiratory mechanism is affected by the CO2 and oxygen concentrations. At rest, the chemo-receptors in the carotid arteries and aorta monitor the ph in the blood. They respond to drops in oxygen levels without an increase in CO2. The chemoreceptors send a message to the inspiratory control in the apneustic centre which then sends nervous impulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, via the phrenic nerve to increase breathing ...
The solution includes explanations on how negative-feedback mechanisms control respiratory rates and the relation between food and muscle mass. It also includes a list of the serous membranes pierced in the torax and abdomen by a pole.