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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Joint movements

Joint movements may be nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, or multiaxial. Define what each of these terms means.


(a) What is a true rib? A false rib? (b) Is a floating rib a true rib or a false rib? (c) Why are floating ribs easily broken


(a)What is the function of the intervertebral discs? (b) Distinguish between the annulus fibrosus and nucleus plposus regions of a disc. (c) Which provides durability and strength? (d) Which provides resilience? (e) Which part is involved in a "slipped" disc?

Vertebral curvatures

Of the normal vertebral curvatures, which are primary and which are secondary curvatures?

Knee problems

The knee has been called "a beauty and a beast". Provide several reasons that might explain the negative (beast) part of this description.

Joints and homeostasis

Discuss the relative value (to body homeostasis) of immovable, slightly moveable, and freely moveable joints.

Shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle

The major function of the shoulder girdle is flexibility. What is the major function of the pelvic girdle? Relate these functional differences to anatomical differences seen in these girdles.

Median sacral crest

A special posterior feature of the sacrum is the median sacral crest. What vertebral feature does this structure represent, and how is this sacral feature different from the same structure on lumbar vertebrae?

Intevertebral Discs

Intevertebral discs consist of fibrocartilage. What does this imply concerning disc function?

Dens/odontoid process

The second cervical vertebra contains a specialized projection known as the dens or odontoid process. What is the derivation of this projection's name?


A cell stimulated to increase its steroid production will have abundant____________. ribosomes, rough ER, smooth ER, Golgi apparatus or secretroy vesicles An epithelium built to withstand friction is _________________ simple squamous, simple columnar, stratified squamous, pseudostratified, or simple cuboidal Type of conn

Cranial nerve

What cranial nerve passes through the foramina in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid?

Homeostasis and Physiology

11. Where in the body is glycogen stored? a. Red blood cell b. Bone tissue c. Liver d. Gall bladder 12. What electrolyte controls water balance in the human body? a. Sodium b. Potassium c. Magnesium d. Calcium 13. Identify the most important way heat is lost from the body during exercise. a. Conduction b. Radiati

Cell Anatomy and Physiology

6. Identify the earliest manifestation of cellular injury a. Accumulation of fat in the vacuoles of the cell b. Necrosis in the affected cells c. An accumulation of water within the cell d. Genetic derangements in cellular DNA and RNA 7. Select the best description of the arrangement of a cell membrane a. Carbohydrate bi