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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Knee problems

The knee has been called "a beauty and a beast". Provide several reasons that might explain the negative (beast) part of this description.

Joints and homeostasis

Discuss the relative value (to body homeostasis) of immovable, slightly moveable, and freely moveable joints.

Bone Mass Changes With Age

Compare a young adult skeleton to that of an extremely aged person relative to bone mass in general and the bony structure of the skull, thorax, and vertebral column in particular.

Shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle

The major function of the shoulder girdle is flexibility. What is the major function of the pelvic girdle? Relate these functional differences to anatomical differences seen in these girdles.


A cell stimulated to increase its steroid production will have abundant____________. ribosomes, rough ER, smooth ER, Golgi apparatus or secretroy vesicles An epithelium built to withstand friction is _________________ simple squamous, simple columnar, stratified squamous, pseudostratified, or simple cuboidal Type of conn

Cell Anatomy and Physiology

6. Identify the earliest manifestation of cellular injury a. Accumulation of fat in the vacuoles of the cell b. Necrosis in the affected cells c. An accumulation of water within the cell d. Genetic derangements in cellular DNA and RNA 7. Select the best description of the arrangement of a cell membrane a. Carbohydrate bi

Difficult Anatomy questions

Prior to intubation for a surgical procedure, the anesthesiologist administered a single dose of the neuromuscular blocking agent, succinlycholine, to a 23 year-old male to provide muscular relaxation during surgery and to facilitate the insertion of the endotracheal tube. Following this, the inhalation anesthetic was administe

Urinary review questions

I have a 120 question review sheet only these 5 are giving me a problem. If you could explain each one, it will be greatly appreciated. 1. Compare contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate. 2. Explain the mechanism of tubular secretion, and explain it's importance in the urine formation process. 3. E

Physiology - Pathological Significance

How might the following occur and what are the possible causes and pathological significance inflammation and necrosis Bacteraemia and septicaemia Oedema

Nerve Damage in the PNS & CNS

Please help with the following problem. Provide a detailed explanation and include diagrams. Explain why damage to peripheral nerve fibers is often reversible, whereas damage to the central nerve fibers rarely is.

Effect of Posture on pulse and blood pressure

What is the effect of posture (i.e. sitting, standing, lying down for 1 minute, lying down for 10 minutes and standing after lying down) on blood pressure and pulse rate. What systems are involved and why?


As we grow our bones increase in diameter, but the thickness of the bony collar of the shaft remains relatively constant. Why?

Immune System: Allergies, Treatments and Management

Many of the most devastating human diseases result from an attack of various microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi) on the human body. The flu epidemic of 1918 killed 22 million Americans and Europeans in just 18 months, and our ongoing war against the HIV virus is still waging. In order to fight against this onslaught, the human b


A 50 year-old male complained of weakness on the right half of his face, which quickly led to the facial paralysis of this side. He was unable to wrinkle his forehead, smile, show his teeth. He was also unable to close his right eye. Taste perception was distorted over the left anterior portion of the tongue. There was compl


1. Production of the gonadal sex hormones is A. relatively constant from fetal life to old age B. low until puberty, after which it becomes quite high and remains so until old age C. low until puberty, and remains so until old age D. high during fetal life, low during childhood, high during puberty, and then declin

Cardiac Output of an Exercising Athlete

The cardiac output of an exercising athlete can increase from 5 to 25 litres or more. Explain what is a cardiac output and describe how such a large increase can occur.

Factors Affecting Action Potentials

Please help with the following problem. What factors determine if action potentials will be generated by a postsynaptics neuron that receives both excitatory and inhibitory input?

Advanced Physiology

1) If the atmospheric pressure is 752 mm Hg, and the partial pressure of nitrogen is 593 mm Hg, the partial pressure of oxygen would be A. 160 mm Hg B. 257 mm Hg C. 159 mm Hg D. 79 mm Hg 2) In nonstrenuous circumstances, after "unloading" oxygen at tissue capillaries, hemoglobin normally remains approximatel

Advanced physiology

1) A 22- year old man was in a motorcycle accident with resultant neck injuries that led to partial paralysis of the upper and lower limbs. Almost immediately his chest felt heavy and he became dyspneic. His pulmonary values: Vital capacity (supine) = 650 ml Minute ventilation (supine) = 6 L/min Respiratory rate (supine)

Independent Signaling in Immunology

This is for an graduate immunology class. The question is: 1) Can someone explain why the MyD88 independant stimulation of TLR4 has been suggested? Any other little details about MyD88 (it is a hard topic to find) would be greatly appreciated! Thank you.

Blood vessels

How are (a)arteries and (b)capillaries adapted for their function?