Differentiate between the arrangement of elements (load, fulcrum, and effort) in first-, second-, and third-class levers.
Smooth muscle has some unique properties, such as low energy usage, ability to maintain contraction over long periods, and the stress-relaxation response. Tie these properties to the function of smooth muscle in the body.
Name four factors that influence contractile force and two that influence velocity and duration of contraction.
Describe the cause(s) of muscle fatigue and define this term clearly
Explain how a slight (but smooth) contraction differs from a vigorous contraction of the same muscle; use the concepts of multiple motor unit summation.
(a) Describe the structure of a sarcomere and indicate the relationship of the sarcomere to the myofilament. (b) Explain the sliding filament theory of contraction inlcuding a relaxed and a contracted sarcomere
People with chronic back pain occasionally get relief from a "tummy tuck." Discuss how this procedure helps.
Please discuss the following: 1) After having a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion, one complained of a frontal headache and the right side of his face ached. What bony structures probably became infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold? 2) An elderly woman, stumbled while walking, she then felt a te
What is the name of the distal expansion of the fibula (often referred to as the external ankle)?
What is the name of the distal expansion of the tibia (often referred to as the internal ankle)?
What is the anatomic name given to the bone that covers over the articulation between the thigh and the leg, and to what special bone group does this bone belong?
What is the name of the bony structure on the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus, and what does this structure's name mean, literally?
Fractures of the clavicle, especially in children, are known as greenstick fractures. Describe this type of fracture.
The clavicle can be palpated through its entire length and is said to follow a sinuous curve. What is meant by sinuous curve?
With which lower leg bone does the femur articulate?
What is significant about the length of the femur in relation to the other bones of the body?
What three bones fuse to form the hip bone?
How is the long head of the biceps brachii related to the intertubercular (bicipital) groove?
Where is the supraspinatus muscle located? Where is the infraspinatus muscle located?
Why might falling on one's outstretched arm result in a fractured clavicle?
Joint movements may be nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, or multiaxial. Define what each of these terms means.
Name two types of uniaxial, biaxial, and multiaxial joints
What is the specific role of the meisci of the knee (articular discs)? Of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments?
How does rotation differ from circumduction
Describe the function of the arches of the foot.
Name the major components of the thoracic cage.
(a) What is a true rib? A false rib? (b) Is a floating rib a true rib or a false rib? (c) Why are floating ribs easily broken
(a)What is the function of the intervertebral discs? (b) Distinguish between the annulus fibrosus and nucleus plposus regions of a disc. (c) Which provides durability and strength? (d) Which provides resilience? (e) Which part is involved in a "slipped" disc?
List at least two specific anatomical characteristics each for typical cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae that would allow anyone to identify each type correctly.
Of the normal vertebral curvatures, which are primary and which are secondary curvatures?