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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Smooth muscle properties

Smooth muscle has some unique properties, such as low energy usage, ability to maintain contraction over long periods, and the stress-relaxation response. Tie these properties to the function of smooth muscle in the body.

Muscle fatigue

Describe the cause(s) of muscle fatigue and define this term clearly

Sacromere and sliding filament theory

(a) Describe the structure of a sarcomere and indicate the relationship of the sarcomere to the myofilament. (b) Explain the sliding filament theory of contraction inlcuding a relaxed and a contracted sarcomere

An Analysis of Skeletal System Conditions

Please discuss the following: 1) After having a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion, one complained of a frontal headache and the right side of his face ached. What bony structures probably became infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold? 2) An elderly woman, stumbled while walking, she then felt a te

External Ankle

What is the name of the distal expansion of the fibula (often referred to as the external ankle)?

Internal Ankle

What is the name of the distal expansion of the tibia (often referred to as the internal ankle)?

Thigh and leg bone

What is the anatomic name given to the bone that covers over the articulation between the thigh and the leg, and to what special bone group does this bone belong?

Articulation with Humerus and Scapula

What is the name of the bony structure on the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus, and what does this structure's name mean, literally?

Greenstick Fracture

Fractures of the clavicle, especially in children, are known as greenstick fractures. Describe this type of fracture.

Sinuous curve

The clavicle can be palpated through its entire length and is said to follow a sinuous curve. What is meant by sinuous curve?

Ribs: True or False?

(a) What is a true rib? A false rib? (b) Is a floating rib a true rib or a false rib? (c) Why are floating ribs easily broken

Function of Intervertebral Discs

(a)What is the function of the intervertebral discs? (b) Distinguish between the annulus fibrosus and nucleus plposus regions of a disc. (c) Which provides durability and strength? (d) Which provides resilience? (e) Which part is involved in a "slipped" disc?

How to identify Lumbar Vertebrae

List at least two specific anatomical characteristics each for typical cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae that would allow anyone to identify each type correctly.

Vertebral curvatures

Of the normal vertebral curvatures, which are primary and which are secondary curvatures?