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Human Anatomy and Physiology

The kidney and blood loss

You have just been in an accident and experienced substantial blood loss. What autoregulatory mechanisms in the kidney will be initiated to maintain filtration pressure? If blood loss occurs, what further mechanisms are used to maintain pressure? Please be detailed and do not copy and paste from a website.

Kidney Filtration

Describe the three pressures involved in the process of filtration. Give a brief description of what would occur if a kidney stone was present. Which of the three pressures would increase? How would this effect filtration? Please do not copy and paste from a website. Be detailed.


While visiting a foreign country, you inadvertently drink the water, even though you have been advised not to. You contact an intestinal disease that causes severe diarrhea. How would you expect your condition to affect your blood pH, urine pH and pattern of ventilation?

Digestive Enzymes are explained.

You have completed a meal consisting of steak, baked potato and a vegetable. Starting with the salivary glands, and including the stomach, gallbladder, small intestine and pancreas describe each enzyme or material that would be released to help with the digestion of this meal. This scenario is investigated thoroughly.

Stomach problems and vitamin deficiencies

A patient was experiencing stomach problems and was starting to show signs of vitamin deficiencies. Which vitamin would be most affected with a stomach pathology and why? How would supplements be administered and why? Amy was also placed on an antibiotic for a sore throat and it also destroyed bacteria in the colon. How would th


If the pacemaker of the heart generates it's own beat, why is the sympathetic and parasympathetic attached to the pacemaker? How and why would the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses be called upon? What regulates this mechanism? Be very specific.

Reflex arcs

You accidentally step on a sharp piece of metal with your bare foot. Trace the reflex arcs set in motion by this accident. Name the reflex types. How do you remain standing when you pick up one foot? Be specific.

Psychosomatic illness

What could be a possible explanation for psychosomatic illness? What anatomical structures and functions could help explain this phenomena? Be specific.

Spinal Cord Anatomy

Please indicate which EACH one of these descriptions is (either afferect, efferent, both afferent and efferent, or association): 1. neuron type found in posterior horn 2. neuron type found in anterior horn 3. neuron type in dorsal root ganglion 4. fiber type in ventral root 5. fiber type in dorsal root 6. fiber type in spi

Back muscles.

Answer each of the following: a. An accident victim was not wearing a seat belt and was thrown from his car. He was pronounced dead at the scene. An autopsy revealed the cause of death was a spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis of the phrenic and intercostal nerves. Why was this injury fatal? Include an explanation of the

Epithelial, squamous, cuboidal, and columnar tissues

A student accidentally loses the labels for three epithelial tissues, squamous, cuboidal and columnar. How could you determine the correct identification of these slides? Be detailed. Give one example of where in the body tissue could be extracted and new slides of these epithelial cells could be made.

Disease of the areolar connective tissue.

If a disorder existed that affected areolar connective tissue, what organ structures and functions would be affected? Include at least two examples. Also include a description of the types of fibers and cells found within areolar tissue. Be detailed.

Classification of Joints

How are joints classified? Explain the classification of joints based on structural and functional characteristics.

Anatomy and Physiology of Bones

Which category of bones (long, short, flat, irregular) has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume? What type of bone is the phalanx classified as? What two types of bone are the major submembranous site of osteoclasts? What type of bone is the major submembranous site of osteoblasts? What is th

Heirarchy of anatomical organization of the kidneys

I need to correlate the microscopic sturctures (cells) to the gross stuctures of the kidneys. I need to integrate into the response the heirarchy of anatomical organization from the cellular level to the organ level of the kidneys. Also, describe how the function of the kidneys correlates to the anatomical structures described

Origin and fate

Origin: 1. Parasympathetic ganglion- 2. The pancreas, not just the lining- 3. Intestine, not just the lining- 4. Sensory neurons- Fate of: 1. Mesomere- 2. Mesocoel- 3. Diocoel- 4. Telocoel- 5. Notochord- 6. Sinus venosus- Thanks

Histological relations

List and describe 5 histological relations found between the fetal and maternal components of various mammalian placentae. Please be as detailed as you can be. Thank you!

Stomach surface area.

Hi, How does the relatively small surface area of the stomach help it in it's digestion function. Thank you.

Critical thinking practice question

Why is incontinence a normal phenomenon in a child under 1 1/2 to 2 years old? What events must occur for the child to become "potty trained"?

Case Study: Neck Injuries and Partial Paralysis of Limbs

A 22 year old woman was in a motor accident with resultant neck injuries that led to partial paralysis of the upper and lower limbs. Sher reports that almost immediately after her chest felt heavy. Doctors in the ER observed that she was dyspneic. Her pulmonary function values were: vital capacity 650 ml min vent vol-6L/min

Physiology case study

I am given this info: My comments are in brackets A 26 year-old female prisoner begins a hunger strike to protest what she considers unfair prison policies. She drinks only tap water, and her only exercise is two dailyt half hour walks at approx 2.5 mph. The temp in her cell is kept at 72F. her starting weight is 70 kg (154 lb

Knee joints

Predict the consequences of of limiting movement at the knee joint. Based on my reading, I'm confused as to whther the various knee injuries and disorders associated wih the knee are examples of such consequences. Please help!!!

Need help with two questions.

You have just been in an accident and have experienced substantial blood loss. What autoregulatory mechanisms in the kidney will be initiated to maintain filtration pressure? Describe this mechanism in detail. If blood loss continues, what will occur to the autoregulatory mechanism? Given the following lab values, answer the

Goldman equation is explored.

The question asks: Calc. the membrane potential from Goldman equation using pNa/pK = 0.02 & the conc. of Na & K inside & outside the cell. Calc. the membrane potential using pNa/pK = 20. Compare these calculated values of membrane potential with the numbers from the simulation. Why does the membrane potential shift when pNa/

Describe the four basic layers of the digestive track; Liver failure

A lab worker accidently spills a tray of slides you have just prepared of the length of the digestive tract, beginning with the esophagus and ending at the rectum. How would you know that the first slide you picked up off the floor and checked with the microscope was from the stomach? Describe the four basic layers of the digest

Compare and contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate

Compare and contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate. Your friend is in a car accident and experiences a substantial amount of blood loss. The emergency room doctor tells you he is sending your friend to surgery to stop the bleeding however she is at a high risk for kidney failure. What does this mean? W