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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Various Anatomy Points

1) The most superficial layer of skin, made of keratinocytes, is dead and provides a protective barrier. If the keratinocytes were a live at the surface, how could that compromise the protective function of the integument? 2) Electrolysis is the process of hair removal by using electric current. Explain how this might destroy

Obesity and the human organs

The subject of obesity has been in the news a lot in the past months. A lot of the discussion has centered on the politics of the issue, but it is needed to consider the biological effects of obesity. Explain what obesity is and how it affects the different organ systems. Might it have an impact on the evolution of the human spe


A) What is H.pylori and how is it associated with gastro-intestinal disease? B) How does the urease breath test diagnose active disease?

Anatomy: Diagnosis of Patient with Osteoarthritis.

Please read the case and answer the questions that follow. Mrs. Olivwer has pain and stiffness in the muscles and tendons of her shoulders, legs, and neck. She had osteoarthritis too. Her discomfort increases during stress. She is depressed. What may be the diagnosis? What is her substance P level? What are the o

Acidosis and Urinary Disorders

Acidosis A 42-year-old female presents with metabolic acidosis from starvation. 1. What might be her symptoms in metabolic acidosis? 2. How would her pH, carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate levels be upon presentation if no compensation has occurred? 3. What other conditions may cause metabolic acidosis? Urinary Dis

Questions on Physiology of Heart Complications

1. Half of the people have a smaller than average sized heart and half have a larger than average sized heart. In which group would you expect the heart rate to be higher? Explain your answer. 2. In general, females have a higher heart rate than males. What explanation can you give for this difference? 3. What important molecu

Gastrointestinal Disorders and Diagnoses

A 57-year-old Wall Street broker has been suffering from intermittent constipation and diarrhea for several months. He complains of abdominal pain and a feeling of fullness. He has been taking Metamucil to add fiber to his diet and to have regular bowel movements, without consulting a doctor as he is too busy. After noticing tha

Gastrointestinal Disorders - Substernal Pain

Gastrointestinal Disorders A 50-year-old man has been suffering from substernal pain for the last 5 months, particularly on waking up in the morning. He lost his job a year ago and was suffering from depression. He consumes about 12-16 cans of beer every day. He has lost his appetite too and says that eating aggravates pain.

Organs of the Respiratory Passageways and Boyle's Law

An essential part of maintaining homeostasis in the body is supplying tissues with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide from the tissues. Identify the organs of the respiratory passageways. Then we will examine how Boyle's law relates to the events of inspiration and expiration.

Growth Hormone Deficiency

Here is a video on growth hormone deficiency. Doctors are now prescribing growth hormone to children with small stature. This is still controversial. Please share what you think about this subject.

Cicardian Rhythm and Hormones

You may have heard of your circadian rhythm. It has to do with many physiological processes. One involves hormone release. For example, cortisol tends to peak between 6 and 10 am. Please explain the body cicardian cycle/rhythm in more details as it relates to hormones.

anatomy and physiology: primigravida female was discovered to have an abnormal ECG

During her routine initial (first trimester) prenatal evaluation, your patient, a 34-year-old primigravida female was discovered to have an abnormal ECG. She was sent to a cardiologist for further evaluation. She denied chest pain, weakness, palpitations, syncope, and shortness of breath, but she did state that she experienced o

Senses and the Endocrine System

What happens with a patient who develops a cataract, does cataract formaton represent a variance from normal anatomy & physiology, what happens in sensorineural hearing loss,does sensorineural hearing loss represent a cariance from normal anatomy & physiology?

Lung Transplants and Ethics

Lungs can be successfully transplanted. Because a donor can live a normal life with less than 2 lungs, should a person be allowed to sell a lung or a portion of a lung? Explain how a person can live with less than 2 lungs and the ethics behind selling an organ. Helpful thought: Why would evolution allow for extra structures?

Study of anatomy and physiology

1) How will the study of anatomy and physiology change in the next ten years and why? 2) What new information has the Genome project provided physiologists who study the discipline? Thank you.

Disease Process and Osteoporosis

Describe the (disease) process at work in people who have been diagnosed with the bone disease known as "Osteoporosis" and describe how the disease process at work in Osteoporosis represents an alteration in normal bone structure and function

Questions for Digestion and Urinary Tract

Questions for digestion and urinary tract (Multiple Choices): Please refer to the attachment for original question document. 1. Which of the following will increase acid secretion in the stomach? A) Aspirin B) Proton pump blocker C) Gastrin D) All of the above E) Only A and C above 2. Resistin: A) Secretion is incre

Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System

1. Explain how carbon monoxide interferes with oxygen transport. Be sure to include the binding of CO to hemoglobin. If the air is contaminated with 0.1% CO and CO binds with about 200 times more affinity than oxygen (21% O2 in normal air), then what will be the ratio of oxygen versus CO bound? 2. A 65 yo male patient goes to