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Acidosis and Urinary Disorders

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Acidosis

A 42-year-old female presents with metabolic acidosis from starvation.

1. What might be her symptoms in metabolic acidosis?

2. How would her pH, carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate levels be upon presentation if no compensation has occurred?

3. What other conditions may cause metabolic acidosis?

Urinary Disorders

A 45-year-old grocery sales clerk has been suffering from bouts of severe pain in his left flank region. He blamed it on prolonged standing for 8 hours straight while working. He was taking over-the-counter pain medications for his pain. One day, he found fresh blood in his urine. He went to a doctor who performed urine tests, CT scans, and x-rays. He was diagnosed with urinary calculi.

1. Discuss possible factors that may have been responsible for the development of the stone and use this case to show how the patient's diet and water intake can help analyze the composition of the calculi.
2. What would be the test results of his white blood cells, blood calcium levels, CT scan, and x-ray?
3. Suggest the best treatment for the patient and a plan to prevent recurrence post-treatment.

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Solution Preview

Symptoms of metabolic acidosis

Generally when the body is acidotic, various organ systems are affected. Localized and general biochemistry requires a fairly balanced pH, otherwise enzymatic functions are not optimally functional. Some general signs and symptoms include chest pain, lethargy, muscle weakness, headaches, and in some serious cases, seizures.

pH/CO2, bicarbonate

Blood pH would be lower than usual, as one would expect from someone who is acidotic. Anything lower on the pH scale is acidic, this is no exception. CO2 levels in the blood, assuming no compensation, would be high, as the body converts acidic elements into less acidic components, CO2 being a byproduct of such reactions. If there is compensation, such as hyperventilating to get rid of excess CO2, CO2 levels may be lower. Bicarbonate in the blood also helps buffer acidic ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses sypmtoms of metabolic acidosis, test resuts, and treatment in approximately 550 words.

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Pathophysiology

Please could you answer these questions as true or false (also attached):

1. An increase in tissue oncotic pressure contributes to edema.

2. Heart failure is an example of a disease state that causes generalized edema.

3. Hypertonic fluid alterations occur when the osmolality of extracellular fluid is below normal.

4. Plasma oncotic pressure is determined by the concentration of colloids.

5. Pooling of blood in the veins causes increased capillary hydrostatic pressure.

6. Water balance is closely related to sodium balance.

7. Secretion of aldosterone results in decreased blood volume.

8. Hyperkalemia causes cardiac arrhythmias.

9 Compensation for acid base disorders occurs when laboratory values return to normal levels.

10. Acute compensation for metabolic acidosis includes renal excretion of hydrogen ions.

11. Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure limits filtration across the capillary membrane.

12. ADH increases the permeability of the distal renal tubule to water.

13. Sodium is a major cation in intracellular fluid.

14. Renal failure can lead to both hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis.

15. Hypokalemia is associated with skeletal muscle weakness.

16. Lethargy and confusion are signs of hyponatremia.

17. Hypoaldosteronism causes hyperkalemia.

18. Depression of the respiratory center in the brain can lead to respiratory alkalosis.

19. Responses to metabolic acidosis include increased rate and depth of respirations.

20. pH is a representation of hydrogen ion concentration.

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