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    Acidosis and Urinary Disorders

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    Acidosis

    A 42-year-old female presents with metabolic acidosis from starvation.

    1. What might be her symptoms in metabolic acidosis?

    2. How would her pH, carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate levels be upon presentation if no compensation has occurred?

    3. What other conditions may cause metabolic acidosis?

    Urinary Disorders

    A 45-year-old grocery sales clerk has been suffering from bouts of severe pain in his left flank region. He blamed it on prolonged standing for 8 hours straight while working. He was taking over-the-counter pain medications for his pain. One day, he found fresh blood in his urine. He went to a doctor who performed urine tests, CT scans, and x-rays. He was diagnosed with urinary calculi.

    1. Discuss possible factors that may have been responsible for the development of the stone and use this case to show how the patient's diet and water intake can help analyze the composition of the calculi.
    2. What would be the test results of his white blood cells, blood calcium levels, CT scan, and x-ray?
    3. Suggest the best treatment for the patient and a plan to prevent recurrence post-treatment.

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    Solution Preview

    Symptoms of metabolic acidosis

    Generally when the body is acidotic, various organ systems are affected. Localized and general biochemistry requires a fairly balanced pH, otherwise enzymatic functions are not optimally functional. Some general signs and symptoms include chest pain, lethargy, muscle weakness, headaches, and in some serious cases, seizures.

    pH/CO2, bicarbonate

    Blood pH would be lower than usual, as one would expect from someone who is acidotic. Anything lower on the pH scale is acidic, this is no exception. CO2 levels in the blood, assuming no compensation, would be high, as the body converts acidic elements into less acidic components, CO2 being a byproduct of such reactions. If there is compensation, such as hyperventilating to get rid of excess CO2, CO2 levels may be lower. Bicarbonate in the blood also helps buffer acidic ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution discusses sypmtoms of metabolic acidosis, test resuts, and treatment in approximately 550 words.

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