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Please could you answer these questions as true or false (also attached):

1. An increase in tissue oncotic pressure contributes to edema.

2. Heart failure is an example of a disease state that causes generalized edema.

3. Hypertonic fluid alterations occur when the osmolality of extracellular fluid is below normal.

4. Plasma oncotic pressure is determined by the concentration of colloids.

5. Pooling of blood in the veins causes increased capillary hydrostatic pressure.

6. Water balance is closely related to sodium balance.

7. Secretion of aldosterone results in decreased blood volume.

8. Hyperkalemia causes cardiac arrhythmias.

9 Compensation for acid base disorders occurs when laboratory values return to normal levels.

10. Acute compensation for metabolic acidosis includes renal excretion of hydrogen ions.

11. Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure limits filtration across the capillary membrane.

12. ADH increases the permeability of the distal renal tubule to water.

13. Sodium is a major cation in intracellular fluid.

14. Renal failure can lead to both hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis.

15. Hypokalemia is associated with skeletal muscle weakness.

16. Lethargy and confusion are signs of hyponatremia.

17. Hypoaldosteronism causes hyperkalemia.

18. Depression of the respiratory center in the brain can lead to respiratory alkalosis.

19. Responses to metabolic acidosis include increased rate and depth of respirations.

20. pH is a representation of hydrogen ion concentration.


Solution Preview

1. True: an increased tissue oncotic pressure implies an increased concentration of colloids (i.e., proteins) in the tissues and therefore fluid will tend to leak out from capillaries to the surrounding tissues which may produce an edema.

2. True: when heart fails to pump effectively, blood backs up in the venous system increasing venous pressure (i.e., an increased capillary hydrostatic pressure). This increased pressure increases the leakage of fluid from capillaries to tissues producing edemas.

3. False: a hypertonic movement of fluid (fluid exiting the cell) occurs when the osmolality (concentration of total solutes) in the extracellular fluid is higher than normal.

4. True: Because capillary barrier is readily permeable to ions, the osmotic pressure is determined by the concentration of plasma proteins (also called colloids).

5. True: pooling of blood in the venous system is going to increase the venous pressure. Both, venous and arterial pressure affect capillary pressure, but it ...