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    Urinary System Disorders

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    Urinary System Disorders

    4. Compare the signs of cystitis and pyelonephritis.
    5. Compare the causes and pathophysiology of acute pyelonephritis, APSGN, and nephritic syndrome.
    7. Compare the pathophysiology of acute and chronic renal failure.
    11. Why is protein intake restricted to patients with kidney disease?
    13. Why would a child's growth and development be affected by chronic nephrosis and renal failure?
    14. Differentiate the causes of frequent voiding associated with cystitis and with renal insufficiency.
    15. Differentiate the causes of urinary retention and anuria.

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    Cystitis vs. Pyelonephritis
    Understanding and appropriately differentiating cystitis from pyelonephritis is crucial. The AAP states that an appropriate diagnosis is imperative for two reasons: (a) to permit identification, treatment, and evaluation of the children who are at risk for kidney damage; and (b) to avoid unnecessarily evaluating and treating children who are not at risk. To make an accurate diagnosis, the difference between pyelonephritis and cystitis must be understood. Classically, the presence of a fever has separated the diagnosis of pyelonephritis from cystitis. Cystitis is an inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder. General signs and symptoms of ...