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Renal system pathophysiology

How are urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine values used to assess kidney function?

How are the locations of renal pain and findings on urinalysis used to differentiate the causes of kidney disease?

How do prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal types of acute renal failure differ in etiology, prognosis, clinical manifestations, and management?

How do the various forms of glomerulonephritis affect the permeability of the basement membrane?

What effect does urinary obstruction have on glomerular filtration, urinary stasis, and infection risk?

Solution Preview

Kidney function can be assessed in multiple ways, but firstly let's consider what the kidney actually does. It filters out certain waste products from the blood stream and can be made to filter more or less of these substances and waste products by a number of factors. In certain cases, pathology elicits pathways which tell the kidneys to filter more or less than usual, and in other cases, pathology at the site of the kidneys themselves causes deficits in filtering as well.

As a result, urinanalysis can test for concentrations of waste products such as creatinine and urea and see if such levels are higher or lower than usual - indicative of ineffective filtering or more activated filtering respectively. In general, the higher the creatinine count, the worse off kidney function is. The same can be said of blood urea nitrogen, although this latter variable is often skewed by other factors and pathologies.

I presume the question regarding locations of renal pain refer primarily to the different locations in the abdomen associated with renal pathologies. Pain in the abdomen as a result of renal pathologies can come about in two ...

Solution Summary

Renal systems pathophysiology is examined.

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