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Acute Kidney Failure

Mr. E develops acute kidney failure because of severe bilateral kidney infection. What will be the effects on fluid balance, electrolyte and acid-base balance? What is the effectiveness of compensatory mechanisms?

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Acute renal failure (ARF) or acute kidney injury (AKI), as it is now referred to in the literature, is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function. This condition is usually marked by a rise in serum creatinine concentration or azotemia (a rise in blood urea nitrogen [BUN] concentration). However, immediately after a kidney injury, BUN or creatinine levels may be normal, and the only sign of a kidney injury may be decreased urine production. A rise in the creatinine level can result from medications (eg, cimetidine, trimethoprim) that ...

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