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Urinalysis

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Renal Disease

1. The majority of glomerular disorders are caused by:
a. Sudden drops in blood pressure
b. Immunologic disorders
c. Exposure to toxic substances
d. Bacterial infections

2. Broad and waxy casts are most frequently seen with
a. Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure
b. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
c. Acute renal failure
d. Cystitis

3. The presence of WBCs and WBC casts with no bacteria seen is indicative o
a. Chronic pyelonephritis
b. Acute tubular necrosis
c. Acute interstitial nephritis
d. Azotemia

4. A disorder associated with polyuria and low specific gravity is
a. Renal glucosuria
b. Cystitis
c. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
d. focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

5. A urine that turns black after sitting by the sink for several hours could be indicative of
a. Alcaptonuria
b. MSUD
c. Melanuria
d. Both A and C

6. Most common composition of renal calculi is ______________

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Renal Disease

1. The majority of glomerular disorders are caused by:
a. Sudden drops in blood pressure
b. Immunologic disorders
c. Exposure to toxic substances
d. Bacterial infections

Response: D Bacterial infections are the primary cause of glomerular disorders

Glomerular disorders is the disorders that reduces the ability of the kidneys to maintain homeostasis balance of substances in the bloodstream. The job of the kidneys is "to filter toxin out of the bloodstream and excrete them in the urine." (1) The kidneys consist of tiny structure known as nephrons. The nephrons contained a glomerulus and a tubule. The function of the glomerulus is to filter wastes and excess fluids, while the tubules convert the waste into urine.(1) The glomerula disease affects the glomerulus making it filter and excrete incorrectly.
Glomerulonephritis is caused by an inflammation of the kidney that involves the glomeruli. The basic cause of it is an infection by the bacteria streptococcal that produce toxin producing an allergic reaction causing the glomeruli to inflame. The glomeruli become so inflame and swollen that it allows blood cells and plasma to enter the filtrate. Therefore, the urine contain lots of protein and red blood cells.

2. Broad and waxy casts are most frequently seen with
a. Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure
b. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
c. Acute renal failure
d. Cystitis

A. Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure

Broad and waxy casts are the "solidification of protein in the lumen of the kidney tubules known as nephron." (3) Waxy casts are smooth, cylindrical refractive material that have broken ends.(3) They are cylindrical bodies formed in the distal convoluted tubules or collecting ducts of kidney. (3) They are the final stage of degeneration of fine granules. Waxy casts are the result of chronic renal failure.
Broad casts are als0 called renal failure casts created in the dilated tubules seen in end-stage renal disease. (2) They appear in patients with advanced renal failure.

3. The presence of WBCs and WBC casts with no bacteria seen is indicative o
a. Chronic pyelonephritis
b. Acute tubular necrosis
c. Acute interstitial nephritis
d. Azotemia

A. Chronic Pyelonephritis

4. A disorder associated with polyuria and low specific gravity is
a. Renal glucosuria
b. Cystitis
c. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
d. focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

C. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

5. A urine that turns black after sitting by the sink for several hours could be indicative of
a. Alcaptonuria
b. MSUD
c. Melanuria
d. Both A and C

A. Alcaptonuria

6. Most common composition of renal calculi is __________Calcium oxalate____

References

1. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/glomerular-disease-overview-beyond-the-basics
2. http://www.medialabinc.net/broad_cast-keyword.aspx

Questions

1. State the purpose of performing Quality Control tests.

Quality control tests - the purpose of performing Quality control tests is to inspect the quality of all factors involved in the experiment, method, or production. Quality control usually involved inspection of the material for possible defects. It is to assure that the methods adhere to top standards without any flaws.

2. What is the minimum number of QC levels that must be tested.

The minimum numbers of QC levels that must be tested is about 3.

3. How often are QC tests performed?

QC tests are performed every ...

Solution Summary

Renal diseases are examined. The majority of glomerular disorders caused by are given.

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The Uses of Urinalysis

Use the information from this sheet as well as any other reliable sources available to answer the following questions. Urinalysis is the topic.

You can tell a lot about someone from their urine! Since the days of ancient Greece, physicians have used the appearance, smell, and even taste of urine to diagnose disease. Nowadays, more sophisticated chemical tests are available that can detect hormones and drugs in the urine, even at very low levels.

Urine is made by the kidneys. We will study the kidneys in greater detail in Module 8, but in this case study we will investigate their role in two physiologically important concepts: homeostasis and mass balance. The kidneys produce urine in three steps: first, blood is filtered into the lumen of the kidney tubules. Any substance that is small enough to fit through the filter will end up in the kidney tubules, and that ends up being virtually everything in the blood except for cells and proteins.

After filtration has occurred, substances that the body wants to retain may be re-absorbed back into the blood from the kidney tubules. For example, in a healthy person, all the glucose that ends up in the kidney tubules will be reabsorbed into the blood by transporter proteins. However, in a person with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, levels of blood glucose may be so high that all of the transporter proteins become occupied, and some glucose may remain in the urine.

The third component of urine production is the selective secretion of various substances into the urine with the help of transporter proteins. Drugs, and other chemicals are typically secreted into the urine by the kidneys to clear them from the system more rapidly than they would be just by filtration alone. In addition, the kidneys use secretion to regulate the volume, osmolarity, and pH of blood by regulating the amount of water, salt, and hydrogen ions in the urine. In Chapter 19, your book describes a particular challenge presented by the kidneys when the antibiotic penicillin was first used to treat bacterial illnesses. In the 1930s, penicillin production was difficult and slow, and doctors found that when they gave it to patients, it was cleared from the blood rapidly by a kidney transporter protein called the Organic Anion Transporter (OAT). Initially, doctors circumvented this problem with the resourceful but unpleasant strategy of collecting urine from penicillin-treated patients and re-extracting the drug from the collected urine! Later, a synthetic compound called probenecid was developed that decreased the rate at which penicillin was secreted into urine because it also used the OAT transporter, and was thus able to "compete" for OAT binding with penicillin.

Urinalysis Questions

1. Many employers require employees to submit to urine tests for recreational drugs as a condition of employment. As a consequence, there is a substantial body of information on the internet about strategies and products that can be used to "fool" a urine drug test. List three ways such a strategy or product might work. Then discuss whether drug test manufacturers or administrators would be able to adapt their tests to detect that type of cheating.

2. Although untreated diabetes mellitus results in glucose being found in the urine, diabetes is most commonly diagnosed with a blood test. In contrast, home pregnancy tests, which detect the hormone Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, which is found at high levels in the blood of pregnant women, are given as urine tests. Compare the use of blood and urine tests in clinical diagnosis.

3. Meghan is really hungry, but doesn't have time to eat lunch, so she stops at a convenience store to buy a large bag of potato chips that she can consume while driving. What will be the immediate effect on Meghan's blood osmolarity? How will her body regulate the osmolarity of her blood? Would her body do anything differently if she also purchased a 64-ounce diet soda to drink while she ate her chips?

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