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Urinalysis

Renal Disease

1. The majority of glomerular disorders are caused by:
a. Sudden drops in blood pressure
b. Immunologic disorders
c. Exposure to toxic substances
d. Bacterial infections

2. Broad and waxy casts are most frequently seen with
a. Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure
b. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
c. Acute renal failure
d. Cystitis

3. The presence of WBCs and WBC casts with no bacteria seen is indicative o
a. Chronic pyelonephritis
b. Acute tubular necrosis
c. Acute interstitial nephritis
d. Azotemia

4. A disorder associated with polyuria and low specific gravity is
a. Renal glucosuria
b. Cystitis
c. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
d. focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

5. A urine that turns black after sitting by the sink for several hours could be indicative of
a. Alcaptonuria
b. MSUD
c. Melanuria
d. Both A and C

6. Most common composition of renal calculi is ______________

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Renal Disease

1. The majority of glomerular disorders are caused by:
a. Sudden drops in blood pressure
b. Immunologic disorders
c. Exposure to toxic substances
d. Bacterial infections

Response: D Bacterial infections are the primary cause of glomerular disorders

Glomerular disorders is the disorders that reduces the ability of the kidneys to maintain homeostasis balance of substances in the bloodstream. The job of the kidneys is "to filter toxin out of the bloodstream and excrete them in the urine." (1) The kidneys consist of tiny structure known as nephrons. The nephrons contained a glomerulus and a tubule. The function of the glomerulus is to filter wastes and excess fluids, while the tubules convert the waste into urine.(1) The glomerula disease affects the glomerulus making it filter and excrete incorrectly.
Glomerulonephritis is caused by an inflammation of the kidney that involves the glomeruli. The basic cause of it is an infection by the bacteria streptococcal that produce toxin producing an allergic reaction causing the glomeruli to inflame. The glomeruli become so inflame and swollen that it allows blood cells and plasma to enter the filtrate. Therefore, the urine contain lots of protein and red blood cells.

2. Broad and waxy casts are most frequently seen with
a. Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure
b. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
c. Acute renal failure
d. Cystitis

A. Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure

Broad and waxy casts are the "solidification of protein in the lumen of the kidney tubules known as nephron." (3) Waxy casts are smooth, cylindrical refractive material that have broken ends.(3) They are cylindrical bodies formed in the distal convoluted tubules or collecting ducts of kidney. (3) They are the final stage of degeneration of fine granules. Waxy casts are the result of chronic renal failure.
Broad casts are als0 called renal failure casts created in the dilated tubules seen in end-stage renal disease. (2) They appear in patients with advanced renal failure.

3. The presence of WBCs and WBC casts with no bacteria seen is indicative o
a. Chronic pyelonephritis
b. Acute tubular necrosis
c. Acute interstitial nephritis
d. Azotemia

A. Chronic Pyelonephritis

4. A disorder associated with polyuria and low specific gravity is
a. Renal glucosuria
b. Cystitis
c. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
d. focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

C. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

5. A urine that turns black after sitting by the sink for several hours could be indicative of
a. Alcaptonuria
b. MSUD
c. Melanuria
d. Both A and C

A. Alcaptonuria

6. Most common composition of renal calculi is __________Calcium oxalate____

References

1. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/glomerular-disease-overview-beyond-the-basics
2. http://www.medialabinc.net/broad_cast-keyword.aspx

Questions

1. State the purpose of performing Quality Control tests.

Quality control tests - the purpose of performing Quality control tests is to inspect the quality of all factors involved in the experiment, method, or production. Quality control usually involved inspection of the material for possible defects. It is to assure that the methods adhere to top standards without any flaws.

2. What is the minimum number of QC levels that must be tested.

The minimum numbers of QC levels that must be tested is about 3.

3. How often are QC tests performed?

QC tests are performed every ...

Solution Summary

Renal diseases are examined. The majority of glomerular disorders caused by are given.

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