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Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

The Circulatory System transports essential nutrients to areas of the body through circulation in the blood and lymph medium. Blood is composed of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, plasma and other trace substances while the lymph medium is composed of mainly leukocytes, fats and proteins. The Respiratory System oversees the utilization of oxygen in the atmosphere and the ejection of waste products, namely carbon dioxide by the process of inhalation and exhalation respectively. Air is 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and 1% water vapor and other gaseous elements. Both the Circulatory and Respiratory system work together to produce an efficient transportation system of nutrients to parts of the body.

The Circulatory System consists of the heart, pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation. The autonomic nervous system controls the heart, electrochemical signals are sent to the sinus node to either increase or decrease heart rate, consequently affecting rate of blood pumping around the body. The pulmonary circuit is the flow of deoxygenated blood to the lungs from the pulmonary artery, where it undergoes gas exchange in alveoli to produce oxygenated blood that flows back to the right chambers of heart through the pulmonary vein. The systemic circulation is the flow of oxygenated blood around the body, it exits the heart by the aorta and after oxygen transfer with muscles the deoxygenated blood comes back to the heart through the Vena Cava.

The Respiratory system consists of the trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles (alveoli) and diaphragm. Inhalation is the intake of air from the atmosphere, and exhalation is the expulsion of used air back to the atmosphere. In inhalation, the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract to push the ribcage up and out – this lowers the air pressure in the lungs, which then air from the atmosphere rushes in. In exhalation, the intercostal muscles and diaphragm relaxes to pull the ribcage down and in, effectively increasing air pressure in the lungs which causes air to rush out.  


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Respiratory Enzyme Reactions

1. What is the name of the enzyme that combines carbon dioxide and water to create carbonic acid? 2.Contraction of just the _________________ is enough to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity in pulmonary ventilation. 3.Internal respiration takes place between the Blank 1 blood and the Blank 2 cells 4.What muscle

Atrophic gastritis (AG) signs, symptoms, treatment

Case Study with Worksheet Fatigued: A Case on Blood Harold is a 67-year-old male who has had regular physical exams, is a non-smoker, and who has been in good health for most of his life. In recent years, he has been experiencing symptoms of heartburn, nausea, and indigestion after eating certain foods. Although he experi

connective tissue

List the structural and functional characteristics of that tissue; Name, classify and describe the various "subtypes" of that tissue; Give an example of where you might find this tissue in the human body and what its functional role is there; and

Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

1. Why are infections of the upper respiratory tract milder as compared to the infections of the lower respiratory tract? 2. Explain the difference between necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and necrotizing ulcerative peridonitis. 3. Why is cranberry juice used to prevent urinary tract infections caused by E.Coli? 4. Expla

Functions of the heart and lungs are featured in this solution, as well as the detrimental effects of smoking on the homeostasis physiology of these two systems. Specific diseases, such as hypertension and emphysema are also discussed.

Address the following: Starting with the right ventricle of the heart, describe the function of the heart and the movement of the blood through the pulmonary and systemic circuit. Include a description of gas exchange within the lungs. Now consider what happens if Jake starts smoking. Discuss in detail how this will affect t

The pathway of blood through the four chambers of the heart.

Summarizes how a single drop of blood around the pulmonary and systemic circuits passes through the four chambers of the heart (the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium, and the left ventricle) and is delivered throughout the body tissues. It is important to understand that both atria contract at the same time and

Effects of calcium, potassium and sodium on heart rate

Hello, I found that calcium ions don't change the heart rate dramatically and that potassium and sodium ions lower heart rate. I am trying to figure out why this is though. Please let me know: 1) Why calcium ions don't change the heart rate dramatically... 2) Why potassium ions lower the heart rate 3) Why sodium ions low

Case study help

Mr. stone, a 45 year old ranch hand, eventually vistited his Dr. because over the past 18 months he had been feeling poorly and had been unable to do his workon the farm. he had recently lost some weight and developed a hacking cough. however he ate well and was a non smoker. in addition he had started to develop breathlessness

Human Health and Disease

1. This layer of the heart allows it to act as a pump. a. epicardium b. myocardium c. pericardium d. endocardium 2. This sling-like structure supports the heart. a. pericardium b. chordae tendineae c. myocardium d. endocardium 3. This is the hardest working cardiac chamber and therefore has the thickest myocardiu

Describe anatomical parts or surgical procedures to respiratory system

All of the body systems are important to keep us functioning, and they all work together to do that. Without oxygen, we would quickly die. The respiratory system is especially important in its role to Please describe an overview of the key anatomical parts of the respiratory system and how it works. Please to describe

Organ Systems and Evolution: The Respiratory System

The human body is composed of a number of organ systems that work together to perform all the necessary functions of the body. Each organ system is comprised of a number of component organs that work together to accomplish certain tasks. The following are some of the human organ systems. - Circulatory System - Respiratory S

Capillary Bed for Blood

Blood entering a capillary bed of a vertebrate was measured for the pressures exerted by various factors Arterial End of Capillary Bed Venous End of Capillary Bed Hydrostatic Pressure 8 mm Hg 14 mm Hg Osmotic pressure

Cardiovascular System

1. What are some differences between diastolic and systolic pressure? 2. Trace the flow of blood from the superior and interior vena cava to the lungs and back to the aortic arch. 3. How is heart anchored to the chest? How does the rib cage serve the heart? How could a rib fracture affect the heart? How are the A valves

Interpreting Observations on Hemoglobin Cooperativity

Under appropriate conditions, hemoglobin dissociates into four subunits. The isolated alpha subunit binds oxygen, but the O2-saturation curve is hyperbolic rather than sigmoidal. In addition, the binding of oxygen to the isolated alpha subunit is not affected by H+, CO2, or BPG. What do these observations indicate about the s

Membranes of the thorax & lungs

? this membrane lines the inside of the thorax ? this membrane lines the outside of the lungs *We have Parietal pleura for thorax and Visceral Pleura for the outside of lungs but now we are second guessing. Thanks!

Divers and lung capacity

Explain why divers often hyperventilate before diving and why they don't fill their lungs to capacity before taking the plunge. List 3 physiological problems that had to be solved before submarines could operate efficiently under the ocean for long periods.

The Cardiac Cycle

In tracing a drop of blood from tissue cells of the left knee to the capillaries of the right arm including the lungs. What are the aspects of the cardiac cycle, keeping track of the left and right sides of the heart, and all the valves through which the blood travels?


How does exchange of nutrients, wastes and gasses occur at the capillary level? What two pressures are involved and how do they create a difference in net pressure from the arterial end to the venous end of the capillary? Be specific.

Lymphatic system - how does it transport material?

Explain why the lymphatic system is a one-way system and the cardiovascular system is a two way system. How can material be moved through the lymphatic system? how does the anatomy of the lymphatic system correlate to this function?

Practice question

The body is experiencing an increase in acid due to a severe infection in the kidney. How would the respiratory system compensate for this increase in acid? Describe both why and how this compensatory mechanism occurs.