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Divers and lung capacity

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Explain why divers often hyperventilate before diving and why they don't fill their lungs to capacity before taking the plunge. List 3 physiological problems that had to be solved before submarines could operate efficiently under the ocean for long periods.

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To remain underwater longer, divers hyperventilate in order to hold their breathe longer. By hyperventilating the carbon dioxide level in their blood is reduced, while increasing the oxygen level. Since they have more oxygen and less carbon dioxide available, they can stay down longer.
Divers don't fill ...