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    Case study on congestive heart failure

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    Please help me with these questions based on case study (at the end of my post)
    1. Varicose veins are an indication of what problem associated with CHF?
    2. What drugs are commonly prescribed to deal with CHF (please give at least 3 different classes of cardiac medication)?
    3. What changes to his lifestyle can this patient implement to reduce the risk of congestive heart failure?

    Presentation: A 53 year-old man came to the emergency department complaining of chest pains while working in the yard.

    History: The patient was recently promoted to a management position at an insurance company in the Hartford area. He quit smoking for his 50th birthday but maintains a diet of steak and potatoes with ice cream for desserts most nights.

    Signs & Tests:
    HR - 65 bpm
    BP - 185/65
    ECG - evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement) and extra ventricular beats
    lipids - total cholesterol: 288 mg/dL
    HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein; "good" cholesterol): 48 mg/dL

    Diagnosis: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is the result of damage to the muscle of the heart that makes it work less efficiently. Blood is not pumped through the system as well as it could and can back up in certain organs, which is where the term "congestion" comes from.

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    Solution Preview

    1. The "congestion" part of congestive heart failure, as you've stated at the bottom, was drawn from the fact that there is congestion of venous circulation into the heart as it cannot effectively pump the blood out. Varicose veins are a result of venous congestion and limb edema, as venous blood from the legs is not able to be pumped back up to the heart ...

    Solution Summary

    We discuss a case of congestive heart failure with underlying of hypertension and dyslipidemia, along with common medical treatment and suggested behavioral modification.