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Diabetes Case Study

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1. Drugs for type-1 diabetes replace what substance that is not naturally available in the patient's body?
2. What is the difference between type-1 and type-2 diabetes?
3. What is the difference between how rapid-acting and long-acting insulin are used?
4. What might a doctor recommend for treatment to control Autonomic Neuropathy related to diabetes?


Presentation: A 39 year-old (type-1) diabetic patient seeks advice from her endocrinologist when she starts having trouble regulating the dosage of her treatments. She presents with gastroparesis (nausea and bloating of the stomach) and urinary retention (inability to initiate urination).

Tests: The cranial nerve portion of a neurological exam reveals a loss of pupillary constriction and failure to abduct the right eye.

Diagnosis: A risk for patients with diabetes is the development of nerve damage, called Diabetic Neuropathy. Though a patient can have diabetes for a long time, damage to the nerves may not be evident until suddenly, symptoms appear. The exact causes of diabetic neuropathy are not known, but about 50% of all diabetics have some form of neuropathy, though not all will be symptomatic.

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Solution Preview

1. Insulin is the correct answer.
2. Type 1 diabetes is when a person has a lack of insulin because the pancreas no longer makes insulin. Type 1 diabetes is often called childhood diabetes because it begins when a person is a child or in early adulthood. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented and usually involves episodes of low blood sugar. In type 2 diabetes, a person doesn't have enough (too little) insulin or cannot use the insulin they have effectively. Type 2 diabetes is usually discovered in adulthood. Type 2 diabetes is ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses a case study on a 39 year old woman with diabetic neuropathy.

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Adam is 14 years old and plays basketball. Recently, he has been thirsty all the time, and he gets up to urinate several times during the night. Adam has lost 10 pounds and is so tired that he has missed basketball practices. What type of diabetes is likely affecting Adam? How does this condition need to be managed? Why is it important to maintain blood-sugar levels within the normal range in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

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