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    Descriptive Epidemiology Case Study

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    Robert Bazell, chief science correspondent for NBC News (2010) stated that the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York, as well as other hospitals throughout the country, are swamped with type-2 diabetes. The news gets worst. Just seven (7) years ago, the CDC reported that one (1) in ten (10) Americans would contract this disease by the year 2050. Now they are saying it could be one (1) in three (3).

    1.Need assistance in comparimg the incidences of diabetes within each region of the U.S. for the past year and identify which state has the highest burden of this disease.

    2.Need assistance in analyzing and explain the modifiable and stable characteristics in which morbidity and mortality rates can be observed. Include biological or genetic factors associated with any disparities.

    3.Need assistance in suggesting how the incidence and prevalence of diabetes varies across dimension of time, both in the short and long term.

    4.Need assistance in proposing the risk factors and causes associated with diabetes, as well as the means or methods of transmission, based on short-term and long-term trends.

    5.Need assistance analyzing and explaining how diabetes mortality has changed in the past 50 years and what this tells you about the causes of the disease.

    6.Need assistance identifying diabetes patterns across the U.S and within specific areas and formulate a theory for this pattern.

    7.Use at least four (4) quality academic resources in this assignment.

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    Solution Preview

    Type II Diabetes

    1. Need assistance in comparing the incidences of diabetes within each region of the U.S. for the past year and identify which state has the highest burden of this disease.

    - Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases especially Type II diabetes among children in the United States (CDC, 2013). Along with obesity, Diabetes is now at epidemic proportions in the United States. Since 1995, diabetes has doubled from 4.5 percent of the population to 8.2 percent in 2010, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that in 1995, diabetes among adults was approximately 6 percent or greater in 3 states. According to the CDC, 10.5 % per each 1000 Americans has been reported to have diabetes. Additionally, in 2010, 6 percent or greater of every state's population has diabetes, and approximately 19 million Americans of all ages were diagnosed with diabetes in 2010, an additional 7 million are estimated to have diabetes, but are still undiagnosed(CDC, 2013).

    - Type 1 diabetes is more of an auto-immune disorder, and the risk of developing the condition is usually inherited from parents, however environmental factors also play a role(CDC, 2013)

    - Type 2 diabetes is referred to as "non-insulin dependent" or "adult onset." And is usually controlled through diet, regular exercise, oral medication, and sometimes insulin injections (CDC, 2013). The disease usually starts when the body develops a resistance to insulin and can no longer use the insulin properly. As such, the need for insulin rises and when it does, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin needed to regulate blood sugar((Innis, Caulder, Cook, & Duquette, 2005; CDC, 2013).

    - The states with the highest incidences of diabetes are those in the south regional area. More specifically, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia (CDC, 2013). Especially in Kentucky the disease has doubled between 1995 and 2000, and has since steadily risen in percentage of new diabetes development according to the CDC. Another 'belt' in which the disease is prominent is the northwest regions with approximately 8.6% per 1000 cases (CDC, 2013). Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Vermont are all located me this region (CDC, 2013). The northwest region follows closely with incidence rates of 8.5%, and includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (CDC, 2013).

    - The research indicates that the south region is the leader in reports of new cases of diabetes. Having said that however, California in the western region leads in being the State in the reports of diabetes with 208 cases; Texas (south region state) with 156 cases; and Florida (south region state) with 139 cases (CDC, 2013). As well, West Virginia has the highest incidence of diabetes: More specifically, the annual rate is 12.7% per 1000 Americans and an average of 17 new cases for each 1000 Americans (CDC, 2013).

    - Overall, however, Diabetes diagnoses are higher and continue to increase in the southern and Appalachian states. The CDC also lists Kentucky among 15 states in the diabetes belt. Those living in the "diabetes belt" as mentioned above, are more likely to get type 2 diabetes than people who live in other parts of the United States (CDC, 2013). In an attempt to place this into perspectives, the CDC reports that within the diabetes belt, 11.7 percent have been diagnosed with diabetes as opposed to 8.5 percent outside of the belt (CDC, 2013). Ironically, the diabetes belt has the highest rates of obesity and physical inactivity than all the other U.S. regions (CDC, 2013). The projected breakdown of Americans with diabetes in 2025 within the ten 'hot spots' diabetes states and the cost to each state are predicted to be:
    1. California: Projected cost of $63.63 billion, 6.6 million people with diabetes
    2. Texas: Projected cost of $52.17 billion, 5.5 million people with diabetes
    3. Florida: Projected cost of $40.43 billion, 4.2 million people with diabetes
    4. New York: Projected cost of $28.38 billion, 2.9 million people with diabetes
    5. Ohio: Projected cost of $19.76 billion, 2.1 million people with diabetes
    6. Illinois: Projected cost of $19.67 billion, 2 million people with diabetes
    7. Georgia: Projected cost of $19.54 billion, 2 million people with diabetes
    8. Pennsylvania: Projected cost of $18.37 billion, 1.9 million people with diabetes
    9. North Carolina: Projected cost ...

    Solution Summary

    A descriptive epidemiology case study is examined. The state with the highest burden of a disease is determined.