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Human Nervous System

The Human Nervous System controls voluntary and involuntary actions using the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord and serves as the main control center. The peripheral nervous system consists of the associated nerve networks, whose function is to connect parts of the body with to CNS. The PNS is divided into the autonomic nervous system, which controls the involuntary activities like digestion and breathing, whilst the somatic nervous system controls voluntary actions by transmitting stimuli information to the CNS, and sending back response signals to muscles. The autonomic nervous system is further divided into the sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous system – sympathetic nervous system deals with fight-or-flight signals, parasympathetic maintains body conditions, and enteric nervous system oversees gastrointestinal functions. The divisions of the Nervous System are displayed in the diagram:

 

There are two types of nerves in the PNS, which are sensory and motor neurons. Sensory neurons carry information from receptors that detect stimuli in the surrounding environment to the motor neurons. The motor neurons are located in the spinal cord, it transfers signals from sensory neurons to the brain, and back to effector muscles to produce a response. Neurons communicate to each other by releasing neurotransmitters at axons, which travel through the synapse to bind to receptors on the dendrites of the adjacent neuron – this creates an action potential. There are two types of receptors, voltage-gated ion channels and second messenger systems. When the voltage of the post-synaptic membrane reaches the threshold, the voltage-gated ion channels open selectively allowing specific ions to enter. In second messenger systems, molecular alterations take place which increase or decrease the cell sensitivity to a certain stimuli.

A reflex arc is when a stimuli-associated signal is transported to the motor neuron in the spinal cord by the sensory neuron, it bypasses the brain and the motor neuron then sends a signal to effector muscles to respond. An example is when a hand responds to a heat source, and withdraws immediately.

Autonomic Nervous System Innervation

Please help me fill in the blank for first 2 questions and brief answer for 3rd. 1. During exercise, the heart rate will increase above 100 beats per minute. This is the result of higher centers of the brain activating the (Blank1) (Blank 2) in the (Blank 3) which will produce output from the (Blank 4) division to depolarize t

A case of Guillain-Barré syndrome

Israel was a third-year college Biology major when he noticed one day that both of his feet were tingling and painful. He figured it was probably from sitting cross-legged while studying for hours.The next morning, he woke up and was in pain throughout his body. He was in so much pain he felt he couldn't get out of bed, and he t

Neuromuscular Blocking Agents & Transmembrane Potential Gradient

1. A certain type of poison is a nicotinic receptor blocker. What affect would this poison have on the muscle action potential? 2. Some inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are the result of Cl- entering the cell through a chloride channel. Other IPSPs are caused by the opening of K+ channels. How could movement of the

Mental Health and Green Space

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Pollution and Environmental Health

For this week's newspaper article, you decided to analyze the role of environmental health in your community. From your readings, your region's air quality reports, and independent research, write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: 1. What are the most pressing environmental hazards in your area (you can choose

week 12

Identify a drug, either natural or man-made, that affects the ANS; Identify the receptor affected by the drug; Describe that receptor's normal function; Describe how the drug affects that receptor's normal function on a molecular scale; Describe the physiological effect the drug has on the patient and what condition

Central Nervous System

1. Find a peer review study in which a subject has sustained an injury to a particular region of the CNS; 2. Describe the region of the CNS that was injured; 3. Describe what functions that region of the CNS is typically involved with; 4. Describe what symptoms the injured person displayed;

Parkinson's Disease - Neurotransmitters

Identify a genetic homeostatic imbalance (disease/disorder) of the nervous system involving neurotransmitters; Describe the symptoms of that disease; Describe how the neurotransmitter is involved in that disease; Name a drug used to treat the disease and how well it works; Describe the molecular mechanism behind how

Olfactory I Nerve

Choose a cranial nerve to discuss in detail and describe its function including the origination in the brain, the path it follows through the skull, its innervation (what body part it serves), and whether its function is sensory, motor, or both. Include unlabeled diagrams of the pathway from the brain through the opening(s)

Multiple Sclerosis MS

You will select and explore a behavioral condition or other CNS pathology. In the book, Neurobehavioral Anatomy on your ebrary bookshelf, you will find chapters that investigate various behavioral pathologies. I recommend beginning here to find your topic. Additional topics may include: Depression Post-traumatic stress

Anatomy and Physiology of Breast Cancer

I need an outline on the anatomy and physiology of breast cancer. It needs to contain these following areas: 1-Definition 2-Etiology 3-Pathophysiology 4-Complication 5-Symptom/signs 6-Investigation(lab or other tests) 7-Diagnosis 8-Treatment 9-Complication 10-Prognosis and prevention

Action Potential and Ion Regulation

Describe the events that must occur to generate an action potential. Indicate how the ionic gates are controlled, explain why the action potential is an all-or-none phenomenon.

Central Nervous System Injury

Result of injury to the central nervous system and how injury may be manifested in a patient with injury to the Temporal lobe of the brain, the parietal lobe, and the medulla oblongata would be affected.

Nervous System Questions

A) Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue 1. In hyperpolarization... 2. A stimulus either causes an action potential or it doesn't. This is called 3. The absolute refractory period assures 4. Neurotransmitters are released from the 5. When a neurotransmitter binds to its receptor and increases the permeability of

Urine Tests & Neurotransmitters

The urine tests can only test neurotransmitters in the body and not the brain. The brain is so compact and complex that it would be very difficult to completely test everything in the brain. QUESTION: 1. Please provide a chart of some kind stating the correct balance of neurotransmitters? There wouldn't be a way to exac

Neurotransmitters - Definition, effects and Treatment

Neurotransmitters play a vital role in both our minds and bodies; please respond to the following items: 1. Define neurotransmitters and describe their role in neurotransmission. Discuss how they are released, how they affect receiving neurons, and how they are removed from receptor sites. 2. Pick one neurotransmit

The Function of Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters play a vital role in both our minds and bodies. Considering this, please respond to the following items: - Describe neurotransmitters in terms of what they are, their general function within the body, and their impact on behavior. - Pick one neurotransmitter and discuss the effect it has on our bodies; part

Nervous system

1)What is a reflex arc? Name its minimum components. 2)What is the function of the thalamus? the hypothalamus? the cerebellum? 3)Discuss how the brain is protected by bone, membranes, fluid, and capillaries. 4)What are two functions of the spinal cord? 5)How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? How do they arise?

Neurotransmitters: Functions and Impact on Behavior

1. Describe neurotransmitters, their function, and impact on behavior. 2. Discuss one neurotransmitter in detail describing the effect it has on our bodies and connection with disease. 3. Discuss the importance of biology for understanding behavior. Please help me with these questions. Thank you.

Nerve action potential and conduction velocity

I have to do a lab report on the nerve action potential and conduction velocity and I am having trouble findingjournal articles. The purpose of thelab was to introduce us to the action potential and how it can be regulated by changing the strength and duration of the electrical stimulus (we used the sciatic nerve from a frog).

Equilibrium potential is assessed.

When the internal sodium concentration is set to equal the external concentration the equilibrium potential went to zero. Why? Details are presented.