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Lymph and Lymphedema

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1. Marlene has had lymph nodes removed from her armpit. Why would removal of lymph nodes cause swelling in her hand and arm?
2. Is lymph more similar to blood plasma or to interstitial fluid? Explain your answer.
3. (fill in the blank) Fluid from the legs passes through lymphatic vessels that enter the abdomen through the lumbar (Blank 1), draining into the (Blank 2) (Blank 3) along with the intestinal trunk. The lymph fluid then leaves the abdominal cavity through the (Blank 4) duct which connects to the left (Blank 5) vein.

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Solution Summary

This solution provides a discussion of lymphedema and the consistency of lymph fluid, as well as tracing the path of lymph drainage from lower extremities.

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Various Case Study Questions

You have helped me before and I learned a lot from your answers. Attached are misc case studies. I have done many for homework assignment, but these are the ones I struggled with. Please help. Thank you.

Clinical Questions
Answer the following clinical questions using your knowledge of basic anatomy and physiology obtained in this unit.

Case Study 3
A middle-aged college professor from Boston is in the Swiss Alps studying astronomy during his sabbatical leave. He has been there for two days and plans to stay the entire year. However, he notices that he is short of breath when he walks up steps and tires easily with any physical activity. His symptoms gradually disappear, and after two months he feels fine. Upon returning to the United States, he has a complete physical exam and is told that his erythrocyte count is higher than normal.
Attempt to explain this finding.
Will his RBC count remain at this higher-than-normal level?
Why or why not?

Case Study 4
A young child is diagnosed as having acute lymphocytic leukemia. Her parents cannot understand why infection is a major problem for Janie when her WBC count is so high. Can you provide an explanation to Janie's parents?

Case Study 7
A gang member was stabbed in the chest during a crack-related street fight. He was cyanotic and unconscious from lack of blood delivery to the brain. The diagnosis was cardiac tamponade.
What is cardiac tamponade and how does it cause the observed symptoms?

Case Study 9
Florida Santos, a middle-aged woman, is admitted to the coronary care unit with a diagnosis of left ventricular failure resulting from a myocardial infarction. Her history indicated the she was aroused in the middle of the night by severe chest pain. Her skin is pale and cold, and moist sounds are heard over the lower regions of both lungs.
Explain how the failure of the left ventricle can cause these signs and symptoms.

Case Study 13
Mrs. Johnson is brought to the emergency room after being involved in an auto accident. She is hemorrhaging and has a rapid, thready pulse, but her blood pressure is still within normal limits.
Describe the compensatory mechanisms that are acting to maintain her blood pressure in the face of blood loss.

Case Study 14
A 60-year-old man is unable to walk more than 100 yards without experiencing severe pain in his left leg; the pain is relived by resting for 5-10 minutes. He is told that the arteries of his leg are becoming occluded with fatty material and is advised to have the sympathetic nerves serving that body region severed.
Explain how such surgery might help to relieve this man's problem

Case Study 16
Mrs. Jackson, a 59-year-old woman, has undergone a left radical masectomy (removal of the left breast and left axillary lymph nodes and vessels). Her left arm is severely swollen and painful, and she is unable to raise it more tan shoulder height.
Explain her signs and symptoms.
Can she expect to have relief from these symptoms in time?
How so?

Case Study 17
A friend tells you that she has tender, swollen "glands" along the left side of the front of her neck. You notice that she has a bandage on her left cheek that is not fully hiding a large infected cut there.
Exactly what are her swollen "glands," and how did they become swollen?

Case Study 19
Some people with a deficit of IgA exhibit recurrent respiratory tract infections.
Explain these symptoms.

Case Study 20
Explain the underlying mechanisms responsible for the cardinal signs of acute inflammation:

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