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Immune System

The immune system's function is to respond to foreign pathogens and maintain defense mechanisms of the body. Inability of the immune system to react to pathogens and stimuli can cause immunlogical disorders and diseases.The immune system responses and divided into two categories:  innate and adaptive.

The innate system is passive; it acts as the first line of defense. Surface barriers that are part of the innate system can be chemical, mechanical or biological – an example is skin, which prevents pathogens from entering the body. Once pathogens enter the body a non-specific response is produced, the innate system also has no immunological memory which means that repeated exposure will produce the same response. Pathogens are identified by receptors in entry pathways, when these receptors are compromised a signal is sent. The non-specific responses are cell-mediated and they involve phagocytes, lymphocytes and cytokines.  

The second line of defense is the adaptive immune system which is trigged after failure of the innate system. This system produces specific responses to the type of pathogenic infections, and it has immunological memory – meaning information of specific pathogen is stored so that in future an enhanced response is conducted. A response is produced when the antigen of the pathogen binds to T cells or B cells, which identify and produce customized antibodies that help the breakdown of specific pathogens.

Mutations in the immune system can lead to immunodeficiency, autoimmunity and hypersensitivity. Immunodeficiency occurs when a part of the immune system is inactive or fails to respond, an example is Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Autoimmunity is when the B and T cells cannot properly identify pathogens, and can lead to the immune system attacking the host body – example is Celiac disease. Hypersensitivity is excessive, side effect reactions that damage tissues in the body, an example is allergies.  

Basic cell function/ Case study review questions related to cystic fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis Case Study Brad and Joanne were worried when their newborn daughter Jada seemed to have trouble gaining weight. They had two older children who never had any problems with weight gain. Jada's appetite was normal, but after meals, she seemed to be in pain. Their pediatrician suggested that it could be a result

Lymphatic system

a. give an overview of the lymphatic system b. decribe the anatomical tissues and organs that comprise the lymphatic system c. describe how familiarity with the system aids in cancer management

Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics

Please consider (and read about as necessary) the phenomenon of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. How did the combination of human medical advances and basic evolutionary principles lead to this situation? How is it a threat to humans and how might we overcome it? Please help me to provide an accurate response.

Immune System

1. What are the mechanisms and the mediators of anaphylactic shock? Discuss the type of hypersensitivity reaction and the molecular mechanisms of anaphylactic shock. What are some possible immediate and prophylactic treatment and how do they work? 2. What are differences between the primary and secondary immune response for a

This solution explains why limiting expression of MHC class II to professional antigen presenting cells is a good strategy for regulating CD4 T cell responses against foreign but not self antigens.

While limiting the expression of MHC class II to so-called "professional" APCs partially ameliorates the problem of self non self recognition among CD4+ T cells, it remains difficult to understand how it is possible that even these cells' class II molecules are not deluged with processed "self" molecules (for example, albumin is

This solutions addresses a question regarding antibody responses to antibody allotypes within three generations of a genetically heterogeneous family. The question addresses issue of why some individuals make anti-allotype responses and why some do not.

Scenario: Amy and Hooman fell in love, got married, and had a baby named Joe. Joeâ??s grandparents are all alive and are all homozygous at IgH, but share no alleles. Joeâ??s aunts Alison and Negin are Amyâ??s and Hoomanâ??s sisters respectively. Finally, thereâ??s a cat named Tigger. Assume that you purified IgM from Hooman

This solutions addresses several questions regarding the use of specific methodologies to sterilize instruments. It details the methods by which the various methods work, provides comparisons between the different methods and also the mechanisms of action of certain antibiotics.

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Trace the entire innate immune response to Staphylococcus aureus infection.

An individual has a wound on the hand that gets infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Trace the entire innate immune response, assuming that the Staph is not cleared and that this is the first time this individual has seen S. aureus. The answer includes, but is not limited to: a discussion of the phagocytic response, cells invo

Myeloid lineage

Choose two of the following myeloid lineage deficiency diseases and describe their similarities and differences. chediak-higashi Chronic Granulomatous Disease Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency

Somatic hypermutation and allelic exclusion in B cells

1. Somatic hypermutation of antibody variable regions can occur during an immune response. It allows daughter cells to produce antibodies with a slightly different V region than the parent cell. Give one reason why this might be important for the efficacy of the antibody response. Explain why mutations of the framework reg

Monoclonal Antibodies

Describe how monoclonal antibodies can be used as vaccines against certain types of tumors.

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How the immune system recognizes pathogens

Most biologists believe that the immune system's defense against infections largely rests on its ability to distinguish self molecules from non-self molecules. This concept seems central to our understanding of immune function. Several immunologists developed an alternative hypothesis: that the immune system's effectiveness re

Immunology experiment telling what types of molecules should be present.

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Immunology

See attached file for full problem description. Table 1: Affinities of tg ARS antibodies It is possible to make transgenic (tg) mice whose B cells ___________________________________ express a tg heavy chain gene. An investigator recently Antibody Ka did an intriguing experiment to probe the basis for ___________________

Immunology

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Immunology

As humoral responses progress, the average affinity of the antibodies produced rises, in a process known as "affinity maturation." This seems at odds with at least one aspect of the clonal selection hypothesis, since the notion of "clonal integrity" implies that the progeny of an activated lymphocyte retain the specificity the o

Immunology

1. A researcher purified mu heavy chains from two inbred* strains, called C3H and A/J. She immunized mice from each strain with the other's mu chains, yielding C3H anti-A/J mu and A/J anti-C3H mu. She tested each antiserum against normal serum immunoglobulins from the sources shown: Precipitate with serum from: Antiserum C

Immunology

Here is a problem: Go to this or other histology links you might find: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/courses/Immunology/Bio307.html These all have either cartoons and/or histology sections of all the important primary and secondary lymphoid organs that we talked about. Click through their sections, readings, and animation

Antibiotics in Animal Feed

The use of antibiotics in animals is a very controversial issue. Do you feel that it is a bad idea to use antibiotics in animal feed or do you feel that the public is overreacting? Discuss the opposing view also. Choose a side and defend it.

Secondary antibody response

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Suppose a scientist wants to make antiserum specific for IgG.

Suppose a scientist wants to make antiserum specific for IgG. They inject a RABBIT with purified MOUSE IgG and get an antiserum thats reacts with MOUSE IgG and other mouse isotopes. Why did this happen? How can she make antiserum specific for RABBIT IgG?

Flu - vomiting - blood pH

While visiting your family, you come down with a severe case of stomach flu. You begin vomiting and continue vomiting for more than a day, unable to keep any food or fluids down. How would you expect your condition to affect your blood pH and why would this change occur? How would it affect your urine pH and why would this chang