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Immune system

1. What are the mechanisms and the mediators of anaphylactic shock? Discuss the type of hypersensitivity reaction and the molecular mechanisms of anaphylactic shock. What are some possible immediate and prophylactic treatment and how do they work?

2. What are differences between the primary and secondary immune response for antibody production? Why are booster shots given after the primary vaccine? Postulate on the long term effects of multiple vaccinations.

3. Explain how T cell education takes place in the thymus (be sure to include positive ands negative selection) and how self reactive T cells can escape to the periphery. Explain how the immune system then has at least two mechanisms to prevent recognition of self antigens in the periphery (be sure to cover the signal model and T regulatory cells)

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1. What are the mechanisms and the mediators of anaphylactic shock? Discuss the type of hypersensitivity reaction and the molecular mechanisms of anaphylactic shock. What are some possible immediate and prophylactic treatment and how do they work?

Anaphylactic shock is a form of type I hypersensitivity reaction. It is also called IgE mediated hypersensitivity. When the body is first exposed to an antigen/allergen it builds up its IgE antibody pool against these antigens. These antibodies attach to mast cells and basophils at their Fc portion. Upon subsequent exposure, the specific antigens/allergens on these cell bound antibodies attach to antigen at Fab portion. This leads to cross linking of multiple cell-bound IgE antibodies that causes mast cell degranulation. As a result there is out pour of histamine which is the major mediator of anaphylactic shock. In addition, synthesis of other inflammatory mediators such as platelet-activating factor, leukotriene, bradykinins, prostaglandins, and cytokines is also stimulated. Immediate symptoms can be treated with antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists and epinephrine or other beta2 agonists (physiological ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses pathogenesis and management of anaphylactic shock, difference between primary and secondary immune response , vaccination and mechanism of T cell education in thymus.

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