2) Explain how the flu vaccination works and why it has a fairly low success rate.
1) Describe how the mammalian immune system responds to (i) a laceration, such as an injury from falling on a barbed-wire fence, and (ii) a viral infection.
The vertebrate (or say mammalian) immune system plays a major role in disease prevention. The immune response varies with the variation in the type of infecting organism. There is a difference in immune response during a laceration, a viral infection, a bacterial infection and so on.
i.) Immune response to a laceration, such as an injury from falling on a barbed-wire fence:
A laceration is a wound that occurs when skin, tissue, and/or muscle is torn or cut open. When there is a laceration or injury in any body part, inflammation comes into play. And inflammation is an immune response. The injury soon becomes red, swollen, and warm. These signs are evidence of the inflammatory response. With an injury, there is also an entry of bacteria inside the body as they get a cut to enter into the body. The immune system needs to tackle with these invading organisms also. Injured tissues send out signals to immune system cells, which quickly migrate to the injured area. These immune cells perform different functions. Some destroy bacteria by phagocytosis. Others release enzymes that kill the bacteria. Still other cells release a substance called histamine. Histamine causes blood vessels to dilate (become ...
This solution provides information on the mammalian immune response to a laceration or injury and viral infection. It then discusses the working of flu vaccine and reason behind its low success rate.