Explore BrainMass

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Need help answering questions below

T cell response to T-cell-dependent antigen reqiures: a) typically a protein antigen b) binding of T cell to a Class II MHC receptor on a macrphage c) binding of T cell to a site on the antigen d) interleukin-1 activating the T helper cell e) all of the choices are correct Antitoxins: a) contain modified bacterial e

Case Study: Analysis of Cause of Death

So I am studying my micro book, and came across a case study. I am hoping a T.A may be able to assist me in answering the 4 questions. The case study is as follows: In the summer of 1999 you are working as a triage nurse in the Emergency department of a hospital. A young-athletic man in his early 20's is helped into the

Characteristics All Organisms Share

Understanding characteristics that humans share with all organisms; understanding anatomy and physiology List 10 characteristics that humans share with all organisms.

Blood values and acids and bases are included.

Using the following sets of blood values, I name the acid-base imbalance (acidosis or alkalosis), determine its cause (metabolic or respiratory), decide whether the condition is being compensated for, and cite at least one possible cause for the imbalance: pH = 7.2, PCO2 = 47 mmHg, HCO3- = 33 mEq/L.

a case of respiratory alkalosis

Using the following sets of blood values, name the acid-base imbalance (acidosis or alkalosis), this job determines its cause (metabolic or respiratory), decides whether the condition is being compensated for and cites at least one possible cause for the imbalance: pH=7.3, PCO2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO3- = 18 mEq/L.

The kidney and blood loss

You have just been in an accident and experienced substantial blood loss. What autoregulatory mechanisms in the kidney will be initiated to maintain filtration pressure? If blood loss occurs, what further mechanisms are used to maintain pressure? Please be detailed and do not copy and paste from a website.

Kidney Filtration

Describe the three pressures involved in the process of filtration. Give a brief description of what would occur if a kidney stone was present. Which of the three pressures would increase? How would this effect filtration? Please do not copy and paste from a website. Be detailed.


While visiting a foreign country, you inadvertently drink the water, even though you have been advised not to. You contact an intestinal disease that causes severe diarrhea. How would you expect your condition to affect your blood pH, urine pH and pattern of ventilation?

Digestive Enzymes are explained.

You have completed a meal consisting of steak, baked potato and a vegetable. Starting with the salivary glands, and including the stomach, gallbladder, small intestine and pancreas describe each enzyme or material that would be released to help with the digestion of this meal. This scenario is investigated thoroughly.

Stomach problems and vitamin deficiencies

A patient was experiencing stomach problems and was starting to show signs of vitamin deficiencies. Which vitamin would be most affected with a stomach pathology and why? How would supplements be administered and why? Amy was also placed on an antibiotic for a sore throat and it also destroyed bacteria in the colon. How would th

IgM and IgG Levels

You find out you have been exposed to the measles. You are concerned because you have never had measles, so you go to see your doctor. Your doctor takes a blood sample and sends it to the lab for an antibody titer. She calls you with the results and informs you that IgM levels are elevated but IgG levels are normal. Does this me


If the pacemaker of the heart generates it's own beat, why is the sympathetic and parasympathetic attached to the pacemaker? How and why would the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses be called upon? What regulates this mechanism? Be very specific.

Sympathetic/parasympathetic responses

Why are the effects of the sympathetic system longer-lasting then the parasympathetic response and why can hypertension be a side effect of a prolonged sympathetic response? Be specific.

Reflex Arcs

You accidentally step on a sharp piece of metal with your bare foot. Trace the reflex arcs set in motion by this accident. Name the reflex types. How do you remain standing when you pick up one foot? Be specific.

The Effects of Smoking on the Nervous System

You decide to try smoking because all of your cool friends smoke and say they really like it. After smoking a few cigarettes you start to feel nervous and edgy, your muscles feel twitchy and your hands are shaking. What has happened to your nervous system? Why? Be Specific.

Reflex Arc Motion after Accident

You accidentally step on a sharp piece of metal with your bare foot. Trace the reflex arcs set in motion by this accident. Name the reflex types. How do you remain standing when you pick up one foot? Be specific.

Explanation for Psychosomatic Illness

What could be a possible explanation for psychosomatic illness? What anatomical structures and functions could help explain this phenomena? Be specific.

Spinal Cord Anatomy

Please indicate which EACH one of these descriptions is (either afferect, efferent, both afferent and efferent, or association): 1. neuron type found in posterior horn 2. neuron type found in anterior horn 3. neuron type in dorsal root ganglion 4. fiber type in ventral root 5. fiber type in dorsal root 6. fiber type in spi

Back muscles.

Answer each of the following: a. An accident victim was not wearing a seat belt and was thrown from his car. He was pronounced dead at the scene. An autopsy revealed the cause of death was a spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis of the phrenic and intercostal nerves. Why was this injury fatal? Include an explanation of the

Creatine Kinase: Effect on Muscles

What would occur to muscle function if a disease caused a malfunction in the enzyme creatine kinase? Include in your response the function of creatine kinase and the cellular events that would be most compromised by the loss of this enzyme. Be specific.

Epithelial, squamous, cuboidal, and columnar tissues

A student accidentally loses the labels for three epithelial tissues, squamous, cuboidal and columnar. How could you determine the correct identification of these slides? Be detailed. Give one example of where in the body tissue could be extracted and new slides of these epithelial cells could be made.

Muscle Contraction Detailed Description

Describe in detail a muscle contraction and relaxation from the point of the nervous stimuli. Describe all cellular structures and physiological events that occur at the cellular and tissue level that are directly involved with the muscle contraction (receptors, etc.). I am referring to skeletal muscle (like contraction of a bi

Disease of the areolar connective tissue.

If a disorder existed that affected areolar connective tissue, what organ structures and functions would be affected? Include at least two examples. Also include a description of the types of fibers and cells found within areolar tissue. Be detailed.

Classification of Joints

How are joints classified? Explain the classification of joints based on structural and functional characteristics.

Anatomy and Physiology of Synovial Joints

Describe the structure and function of the following structures or tissues in relation to a synovial joint: Ligament, tendon, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, bursa.