I need the reflex arc traced for the patellar reflex and the achilles reflex. Name the efferent and afferent nerves, receptors, effectors, and integration centers for each.
Please indicate which EACH one of these descriptions is (either afferect, efferent, both afferent and efferent, or association): 1. neuron type found in posterior horn 2. neuron type found in anterior horn 3. neuron type in dorsal root ganglion 4. fiber type in ventral root 5. fiber type in dorsal root 6. fiber type in spi
Answer each of the following: a. An accident victim was not wearing a seat belt and was thrown from his car. He was pronounced dead at the scene. An autopsy revealed the cause of death was a spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis of the phrenic and intercostal nerves. Why was this injury fatal? Include an explanation of the
What would occur to muscle function if a disease caused a malfunction in the enzyme creatine kinase? Include in your response the function of creatine kinase and the cellular events that would be most compromised by the loss of this enzyme. Be specific.
Describe reflexive memory.
Compare and contrast bone formation in adults versus teenagers. Be specific in addressing how and why.
Describe in detail a muscle contraction and relaxation from the point of the nervous stimuli. Describe all cellular structures and physiological events that occur at the cellular and tissue level that are directly involved with the muscle contraction (receptors, etc.). I am referring to skeletal muscle (like contraction of a bi
If a disorder existed that affected areolar connective tissue, what organ structures and functions would be affected? Include at least two examples. Also include a description of the types of fibers and cells found within areolar tissue. Be detailed.
How are joints classified? Explain the classification of joints based on structural and functional characteristics.
Describe the structure and function of the following structures or tissues in relation to a synovial joint: Ligament, tendon, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, bursa.
Which category of bones (long, short, flat, irregular) has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume? What type of bone is the phalanx classified as? What two types of bone are the major submembranous site of osteoclasts? What type of bone is the major submembranous site of osteoblasts? What is th
1. How can the skin be both a membrane and an organ? Please be very specific. 2. Also, what are fibers in the dermis produced by?
I need to correlate the microscopic sturctures (cells) to the gross stuctures of the kidneys. I need to integrate into the response the heirarchy of anatomical organization from the cellular level to the organ level of the kidneys. Also, describe how the function of the kidneys correlates to the anatomical structures described
The mouth, or buccal cavity, and its extension, which stretches through the body to the anus, is not listed as an internal body cavity. Why?
Describe the effects of both the loss and gain of sodium in the ECF. What would the effect be on the ICF? Why would this effect occur?
A 22 year old woman was in a motor accident with resultant neck injuries that led to partial paralysis of the upper and lower limbs. Sher reports that almost immediately after her chest felt heavy. Doctors in the ER observed that she was dyspneic. Her pulmonary function values were: vital capacity 650 ml min vent vol-6L/min
I am given this info: My comments are in brackets A 26 year-old female prisoner begins a hunger strike to protest what she considers unfair prison policies. She drinks only tap water, and her only exercise is two dailyt half hour walks at approx 2.5 mph. The temp in her cell is kept at 72F. her starting weight is 70 kg (154 lb
Predict the consequences of of limiting movement at the knee joint. Based on my reading, I'm confused as to whther the various knee injuries and disorders associated wih the knee are examples of such consequences. Please help!!!
Trace the pathway of a creatinine molecule from a glomerulus to the urethra. Name every microscopic and gross anatomical structure it passes along the way.
Compare and contrast the chemical and physiological buffer systems. Why are there two systems? How do they work in conjunction to maintain homeostasis?
You have just been in an accident and have experienced substantial blood loss. What autoregulatory mechanisms in the kidney will be initiated to maintain filtration pressure? Describe this mechanism in detail. If blood loss continues, what will occur to the autoregulatory mechanism? Given the following lab values, answer the
The question asks: Calc. the membrane potential from Goldman equation using pNa/pK = 0.02 & the conc. of Na & K inside & outside the cell. Calc. the membrane potential using pNa/pK = 20. Compare these calculated values of membrane potential with the numbers from the simulation. Why does the membrane potential shift when pNa/
A lab worker accidently spills a tray of slides you have just prepared of the length of the digestive tract, beginning with the esophagus and ending at the rectum. How would you know that the first slide you picked up off the floor and checked with the microscope was from the stomach? Describe the four basic layers of the digest
Compare and contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate. Your friend is in a car accident and experiences a substantial amount of blood loss. The emergency room doctor tells you he is sending your friend to surgery to stop the bleeding however she is at a high risk for kidney failure. What does this mean? W
A human drinks 1000 CM3 of distilled water and measures the amount of urine passed at 30 minute intervals. The subject passes 175CM3 at 30 mins, 325CM3 at 60 mins, and 225 CM3 at 90 mins. Why does the subject pass more urine at 60 mins than 90 mins???
What hormones are produced by the hypothalamus, and what do they do?
Hi. Can someone please help me with the following blood typing/hemagglutination assay problem. I'm confused about who is the donor and who is the acceptor. For the question, please go to the following website: http://tutor.lscf.ucsb.edu/instdev/sears/immunology/ Click on prior examinations; password: gauchos Go to win
Hi. Can someone please check my answers to the following multi-part question, and explain the questions I couldn't answer or that I got wrong? This is an 11-part question (!), but I think it looks worse than it is. It's 60% of a 1-hour test, so I don't think it should take more than an hour to go through, at most. For the
What is the role of smoking in the development of emphysema?
Monoclonal antibodies come from clones of B cells that produce a single antibody of known specificity. B cells will nor normally divide in the absence of antibody. The special trick that allowed monoclonal antibody-producing cells to be grown in culture was: (a) Mice were immunized with antigen and T cells removed and grown