Explore BrainMass

Explore BrainMass

    Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Osteon/Haversian Systems

    What type of rings are osteon made up of, and what are the chambers called that they house? What is found in these chambers?

    Physiology - Pathological Significance

    How might the following occur and what are the possible causes and pathological significance inflammation and necrosis Bacteraemia and septicaemia Oedema

    Nerve Damage in the PNS & CNS

    Please help with the following problem. Provide a detailed explanation and include diagrams. Explain why damage to peripheral nerve fibers is often reversible, whereas damage to the central nerve fibers rarely is.

    Effect of Posture on pulse and blood pressure

    What is the effect of posture (i.e. sitting, standing, lying down for 1 minute, lying down for 10 minutes and standing after lying down) on blood pressure and pulse rate. What systems are involved and why?

    expiratory reserve volume defined

    What major air volume is left in the lungs after forcibly exhaling? A short debate between residual and expiratory reserve volume is included.


    As we grow our bones increase in diameter, but the thickness of the bony collar of the shaft remains relatively constant. Why?

    Residual Volume of Lungs Air

    The residual volume of air in the lungs a.is the amount expelled on a normal expiration b.remains until the chest cavity is opnened c.is also called the minimal air volume d. is the amount forcefully exhaled e.is also known as the complemental air We know that it's not a or c, but a different question was what major air

    Intrathoracic pressure

    Intrathoracic pressure: a. becomes equal to the external environmental air pressure by the action of the respiratory muscles b. is less than the atmospheric pressure during inspiration c. is less than atmospheric pressure during inhalation d. increases when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract e. is the

    Immune System: Allergies, Treatments and Management

    Many of the most devastating human diseases result from an attack of various microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi) on the human body. The flu epidemic of 1918 killed 22 million Americans and Europeans in just 18 months, and our ongoing war against the HIV virus is still waging. In order to fight against this onslaught, the human b


    A 50 year-old male complained of weakness on the right half of his face, which quickly led to the facial paralysis of this side. He was unable to wrinkle his forehead, smile, show his teeth. He was also unable to close his right eye. Taste perception was distorted over the left anterior portion of the tongue. There was compl


    1. Production of the gonadal sex hormones is A. relatively constant from fetal life to old age B. low until puberty, after which it becomes quite high and remains so until old age C. low until puberty, and remains so until old age D. high during fetal life, low during childhood, high during puberty, and then declin

    Cardiac Output of an Exercising Athlete

    The cardiac output of an exercising athlete can increase from 5 to 25 litres or more. Explain what is a cardiac output and describe how such a large increase can occur.

    Factors Affecting Action Potentials

    Please help with the following problem. What factors determine if action potentials will be generated by a postsynaptics neuron that receives both excitatory and inhibitory input?

    Advanced Physiology

    1) If the atmospheric pressure is 752 mm Hg, and the partial pressure of nitrogen is 593 mm Hg, the partial pressure of oxygen would be A. 160 mm Hg B. 257 mm Hg C. 159 mm Hg D. 79 mm Hg 2) In nonstrenuous circumstances, after "unloading" oxygen at tissue capillaries, hemoglobin normally remains approximatel

    Advanced physiology

    1) A 22- year old man was in a motorcycle accident with resultant neck injuries that led to partial paralysis of the upper and lower limbs. Almost immediately his chest felt heavy and he became dyspneic. His pulmonary values: Vital capacity (supine) = 650 ml Minute ventilation (supine) = 6 L/min Respiratory rate (supine)

    Independent Signaling in Immunology

    This is for an graduate immunology class. The question is: 1) Can someone explain why the MyD88 independant stimulation of TLR4 has been suggested? Any other little details about MyD88 (it is a hard topic to find) would be greatly appreciated! Thank you.

    Blood vessels

    How are (a)arteries and (b)capillaries adapted for their function?

    Diagram of a loop of Henle and collecting duct

    Create a diagram to show the arrangements of a loop of Henle and collecting duct. On the diagram: a) give the normal average osmolality at the top of the descending limb of the loop of Henle, at the bend of the loop, and at the distal end of the collecting duct. b) use arrowsto show the movement of water, sodium and urea

    Transport of Pilocarpine Across the Corneal Membrane

    I am trying to work through calculations to obtain the delta H and delta S in the example 3 - 14 on page 71 of Martin's Physical Pharmacy. A set of data (log Ka v. 1/T x 10^3) is plotted and the linear form of the van't hoff equation should be used to calculate delta H and delta S. The equation in this form is: ln K = -(delta

    Cartilage, Tissue, and Cardiocytes

    9. Name the type of cartilage that makes- up the interverebral discs and the cartilage between the pubic bones 10. Name the cellular junctions that allow cardiocytes ( heart muscle cells) to communicate a corrdinated heart beat. What are the three basic components of connective tissues?

    All About Tissue

    2. Name two of the four basic types of tissue 5. Name two cell types found in the connective tissue proper 6. What structures are composed of dense regular connective tissue (where they are found in the body). 7. Name the two fluid connective tissue types.


    1. Functions of epithelia include all of the following except a. providing physical protection. b. controlling permeability. c. absorption d producing specialized secrections e. storing energy reserves. 2. A type of intercellular connection in which there is a partial fusion of the lipid portions of two cell

    Antibody/antigen binding

    Explain why an antibody could sometime bind differently to an antigen in function of its native or denatured conformation.

    Recognition of the Antigen

    Explain what does happen if a protein has no amino acids corresponding to the anchor residues of a given MHC molecule.


    Explain three things that might stimulate the respiratory center during exercise to explain hypernea.

    Review Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves

    Using the terms, match the appropriate structures with the descriptions given below: a. cerebellum h. fornix o. pineal body b. cerebral aqueduct i. fourth ventricle p. pituitary gland c. cerebral hemisphere j. hypothalamus q. pons d. cerebral peduncle k. mammillary bodies r. septum pellucidum e. choroid plexus

    Neurophysiology of nerve impulses

    Respond appropriately to each statement below either by completing the statement or by answering the question raised. 1. The cellular unit of the nervous system is the neuron. What is the major function of this cell type? 2 and 3. What characteristics are highly developed to allow the neuron to perform this function? (hin