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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Overcoming Limits Placed on Body by Cellular Respiration

We live in an age which has seen great scandal involving athletes and performance enhancing substances. Describe one method by which an athlete may enhance his or her performance and overcome the limits placed on the body by cellular respiration.

Biological Radioactivity Test - Theoretical

Remember the nuclear accident at Chernobyl (former Soviet Union - now the territory of Ukraine) in 1986? A scientist suspects that the food in a nearby ecosystem may have been contaminated with radioactive nitrogen over a period of months. Which substances in plants and animals could be examined for radioactivity to test

OSMORECEPTORS AND MICTURITION AND DEFECATION

Using the negative feedback system, explain how osmoreceptors and CO2 receptors maintain water balance and respiratory rates. Include a diagram. How are micturation and defecation reflexes different? NOTE: Moved from Physiology to Biology to expose question to different Online TAs.

Diagram amino acid adsorption in the small intestinal lumen.

i need help diagraming the process of the following instructions. please help me. On a single page, diagram removal of an amino acid from protein by a peptidase in the intestinal lumen, followed by absorption of the amino acid. This process will include an epithelial cell actively transporting the an amino acid from the lumen

Twitch contraction

Hi-Please explain what the refractory period is and when it happens-before or after relaxation? Thanks.

This job compares cerebral cortexes.

I understand that a mammal brain with a relatively smooth cerebral cortex would have a smaller surface area compared to a mammal brain with many sulci. This job examines the effect on the habits of these mammals in respect of feeding, breeding etc.

Body Metabolism

Sports scientists distinguish between aerobic fitness (as achieved, for example, by long distance running) and anaerobic fitness (as achieved by sprinting exercise). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Why have they chosen these particular terms to describe these two

The body Metabolism

Involving the glycolysis, what is the net gain of ATP? What does "net" mean? For each turn of the Kreb's cycle, how much ATP is produced? How many molecules of CO2 are produced? What is the significance of stripping off high-energy electrons from the pyruvate?

The Digestion System

How is the villus the functional unit of the small intestine? What is the structure and function and the enzymes found there. What is the importance of the surface area to the functioning villi? What an approiate way to counsel a friend who is overweight and blames herself for a lack of self-control?

Biology

#1 How did the theory of biogenesis lead the way for the germ theory of disease? (1pt.) #2 In 1864, Lister observed that patients recovered completely from simple fractures, but compound fractures had "disastrous consequences." He knew that the application of phenol (carbolic acid) to fields in the town of Carlisle prevent

Infection & Immunity

The interactions and origins of the different types of T cells and B cells and the role of "recognition." Description of their connection in a specific immune response.

Immunity & Infectious Diseases

Why are the symptoms of a cold similar every time? What is the role of the mast cells? How is it that a person becomes immune to a particular infection once she or he has recovered?

Mechanisms of an Action Potential

Why is the term "action potential" used to describe a nerve impulse? What is the role of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) in generating an action potential. What is a "threshold"?

The menstrual cycle

What is the intricate and coordinated interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, and uterus.

Need help answering questions below

T cell response to T-cell-dependent antigen reqiures: a) typically a protein antigen b) binding of T cell to a Class II MHC receptor on a macrphage c) binding of T cell to a site on the antigen d) interleukin-1 activating the T helper cell e) all of the choices are correct Antitoxins: a) contain modified bacterial e

Case Study: Analysis of Cause of Death

So I am studying my micro book, and came across a case study. I am hoping a T.A may be able to assist me in answering the 4 questions. The case study is as follows: In the summer of 1999 you are working as a triage nurse in the Emergency department of a hospital. A young-athletic man in his early 20's is helped into the

a case of respiratory alkalosis

Using the following sets of blood values, name the acid-base imbalance (acidosis or alkalosis), this job determines its cause (metabolic or respiratory), decides whether the condition is being compensated for and cites at least one possible cause for the imbalance: pH=7.3, PCO2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO3- = 18 mEq/L.

The kidney and blood loss

You have just been in an accident and experienced substantial blood loss. What autoregulatory mechanisms in the kidney will be initiated to maintain filtration pressure? If blood loss occurs, what further mechanisms are used to maintain pressure? Please be detailed and do not copy and paste from a website.

Kidney Filtration

Describe the three pressures involved in the process of filtration. Give a brief description of what would occur if a kidney stone was present. Which of the three pressures would increase? How would this effect filtration? Please do not copy and paste from a website. Be detailed.

Diarrhea

While visiting a foreign country, you inadvertently drink the water, even though you have been advised not to. You contact an intestinal disease that causes severe diarrhea. How would you expect your condition to affect your blood pH, urine pH and pattern of ventilation?

Digestive Enzymes are explained.

You have completed a meal consisting of steak, baked potato and a vegetable. Starting with the salivary glands, and including the stomach, gallbladder, small intestine and pancreas describe each enzyme or material that would be released to help with the digestion of this meal. This scenario is investigated thoroughly.

Stomach problems and vitamin deficiencies

A patient was experiencing stomach problems and was starting to show signs of vitamin deficiencies. Which vitamin would be most affected with a stomach pathology and why? How would supplements be administered and why? Amy was also placed on an antibiotic for a sore throat and it also destroyed bacteria in the colon. How would th

IgM and IgG Levels

You find out you have been exposed to the measles. You are concerned because you have never had measles, so you go to see your doctor. Your doctor takes a blood sample and sends it to the lab for an antibody titer. She calls you with the results and informs you that IgM levels are elevated but IgG levels are normal. Does this me

Pacemaker

If the pacemaker of the heart generates it's own beat, why is the sympathetic and parasympathetic attached to the pacemaker? How and why would the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses be called upon? What regulates this mechanism? Be very specific.

Sympathetic/parasympathetic responses

Why are the effects of the sympathetic system longer-lasting then the parasympathetic response and why can hypertension be a side effect of a prolonged sympathetic response? Be specific.

Reflex Arcs

You accidentally step on a sharp piece of metal with your bare foot. Trace the reflex arcs set in motion by this accident. Name the reflex types. How do you remain standing when you pick up one foot? Be specific.

The Effects of Smoking on the Nervous System

You decide to try smoking because all of your cool friends smoke and say they really like it. After smoking a few cigarettes you start to feel nervous and edgy, your muscles feel twitchy and your hands are shaking. What has happened to your nervous system? Why? Be Specific.