Using the terms, match the appropriate structures with the descriptions given below:
a. cerebellum h. fornix o. pineal body
b. cerebral aqueduct i. fourth ventricle p. pituitary gland
c. cerebral hemisphere j. hypothalamus q. pons
d. cerebral peduncle k. mammillary bodies r. septum pellucidum
e. choroid plexus l. massa intermedia s. thalamus
f. corpora quadrigemina m. medulla oblongata
g. corpus callosum n. optic chiasma
1. site of regulation of body temperature and water balance; most important autonomic center
2. consciousness depends on the function of this part of the brain
3. located in the midbrain; contains reflex centers for vision and audition
4. responsible for regulation of posture and coordination of complex muscular movements
5. important synapse site for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex
6. contains autonomic centers regulating blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rhythm, as well as coughing, sneezing, and swallowing centers
7. large commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres
8. fiber tract involved with olfaction
9. connects the third and fourth ventricles
10. encloses the third ventricle
11.Embryologically, the brain arises from the rostral end of a tubelike structure that quickly becomes divided into three major regions. Groups of structures that develop from the embryonic brain are listed below. Designate the embryonic origin of each group as the hindbrain, midbrain, or forebrain.
a) the diencephalon, including the thalamus, optic chiasma, and hypothalamus.
b)the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
c)the cerebral hemispheres
12.A brain hemorrhage within the region of the right internal capsule results in paralysis of the left side of the body. Explain why the left side (rather than the right side) is affected.
13.Explain why trauma to the base of the brain is often much more dangerous than trauma to the frontal lobes. (Hint: Think about the relative functioning of the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem structures. Which contain centers more vital to life?)
14.Complete the following statements by writing the proper word or phrase on the corresponding blanks at the right.
A(n) __________ is an elevated ridge of cerebral tissue. The convolutions
seen in the cerebrum are important because they increase the ________.
Gray matter is composed of _____________. White matter is composed
of_____________. A fiber tract that provides for communication between
different parts of the same cerebral hemisphere is called a(n)
_____________, whereas one that carries impulses to the cerebrum from, and
from the cerebrum to, lower CNS areas is called a(n)________ tract.
The lentiform nucleus along with the amygdaloid and caudate nuclei
are collectively called the__________.
Several terms are defined that relate to the gross anatomy of the brain and cranial nerves.