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Skeletal System

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Introducing the skeletal system in general and differentiate between the axial and appendicular skeleton
Include illustrations of the bones of the skull. Differentiate between:
The facial bones and the cranial bones
the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossa
3. Trace the pathway of the following major nerves through the corresponding openings of the bones of the skull for:

CNI the Olfactory Nerve
CNII the Optic Nerve
CNV the Trigeminal Nerve
CNVII the Facial Nerve
CNX the Vagus Nerve

Bobick, J and Balaban, N. "Skeletal System." Handy Anatomy Answer Book. Visible Ink Press. MI, USA. 2008. eISBN: 9781578592326

Brooks, Arthur. "Muscular and Skeletal System." Systems of Our Body. Pgs. 87-96. Global Media. Delhi, India. 2007. eISBN: 9788189940829

Hall, BK. Bones and Cartilage: Developmental Skeletal Biology. Chapters 1-3. Academic Press, Jordan Hill, GBR. 2005. eISBN: 9780080454153

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Slide 1

Function of Bone and Skeleton System
The skeletal system performs several basic functions:
Support- serve as the structural framework for the body by supporting soft tissues and providing attachment points for tendons of most skeletal muscles
Protection- The skeleton protects the most important internal organs from injury.
Assistance in movement- Most skeletal muscles attach to bones; when they contract, they pull on bones to produce movement
Mineral homeostasis- Bone tissue stores several minerals, especially calcium and phosphorous that contribute to the strength of bone.
Blood cell production. Certain tissue of bones produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelet called hemopoiesis.
Triglyceride storage- Yellow bone marrow consists mainly of adipose cells that store triglycerides.

Slide 2
Division of Skeletal System
Bones of the adult skeletons are grouped into two principal divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton
Axial skeleton consists of bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the human body, an imaginary vertical line that runs through the body's center of gravity from the head to the space between the feet:

Slide 3
Axial Skeleton

Auditory ossicles
Vertebral column

Slide 4

Axial Skeleton
Skull - consist of 22 bones rests on the superior end of the vertebral column (backbone)
Bones of skull grouped into two categories: cranial bones and facial bones
Cranial bones form the cranial cavity that encloses and protects the brain. The eight cranial bones are the frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, the occipital bone, the sphenoid bone, and the ethmoid bone.
Facial bones form the face: two nasal bones, two maxillae, two zygomatic bones, the mandible, two lacrimal bones, two palatine bones, two inferior nasal conchae, and the vomer.

Slide 5

Axial Skeleton
Hyoid Bone- are U shaped is unique to the axial skeleton
Located in the anterior neck between the mandible and larynx
Supports the tongue, providing attachment sites for some tongue muscles and for muscles of the neck and pharynx.

Slide 6
Axial Skeleton

Cranial bones - form the cranial cavity, which encloses and protects the brain.
Frontal bone- forms the forehead (anterior part of the cranium), the roofs of the orbits (eye sockets), and most of the anterior part of cranial floor.
Parietal bones -form ...

Solution Summary

Bone is made up of several different tissues: bone tissue, cartilage, dense connective tissue, epithelium adipose tissue, and nervous tissue. The entire framework of bones and cartilages made up the skeletal system. The functions of the skeletal system are to support, protect, move, maintain mineral homeostasis, produce blood cell, and store triglyceride.