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    Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Stomach problems and vitamin deficiencies

    A patient was experiencing stomach problems and was starting to show signs of vitamin deficiencies. Which vitamin would be most affected with a stomach pathology and why? How would supplements be administered and why? Amy was also placed on an antibiotic for a sore throat and it also destroyed bacteria in the colon. How would th

    IgM and IgG Levels

    You find out you have been exposed to the measles. You are concerned because you have never had measles, so you go to see your doctor. Your doctor takes a blood sample and sends it to the lab for an antibody titer. She calls you with the results and informs you that IgM levels are elevated but IgG levels are normal. Does this me


    If the pacemaker of the heart generates it's own beat, why is the sympathetic and parasympathetic attached to the pacemaker? How and why would the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses be called upon? What regulates this mechanism? Be very specific.

    Sympathetic/parasympathetic responses

    Why are the effects of the sympathetic system longer-lasting then the parasympathetic response and why can hypertension be a side effect of a prolonged sympathetic response? Be specific.

    Reflex Arcs

    You accidentally step on a sharp piece of metal with your bare foot. Trace the reflex arcs set in motion by this accident. Name the reflex types. How do you remain standing when you pick up one foot? Be specific.

    The Effects of Smoking on the Nervous System

    You decide to try smoking because all of your cool friends smoke and say they really like it. After smoking a few cigarettes you start to feel nervous and edgy, your muscles feel twitchy and your hands are shaking. What has happened to your nervous system? Why? Be Specific.

    Reflex Arc Motion after Accident

    You accidentally step on a sharp piece of metal with your bare foot. Trace the reflex arcs set in motion by this accident. Name the reflex types. How do you remain standing when you pick up one foot? Be specific.

    Explanation for Psychosomatic Illness

    What could be a possible explanation for psychosomatic illness? What anatomical structures and functions could help explain this phenomena? Be specific.

    Spinal Cord Anatomy

    Please indicate which EACH one of these descriptions is (either afferect, efferent, both afferent and efferent, or association): 1. neuron type found in posterior horn 2. neuron type found in anterior horn 3. neuron type in dorsal root ganglion 4. fiber type in ventral root 5. fiber type in dorsal root 6. fiber type in spi

    Back muscles.

    Answer each of the following: a. An accident victim was not wearing a seat belt and was thrown from his car. He was pronounced dead at the scene. An autopsy revealed the cause of death was a spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis of the phrenic and intercostal nerves. Why was this injury fatal? Include an explanation of the

    Creatine Kinase: Effect on Muscles

    What would occur to muscle function if a disease caused a malfunction in the enzyme creatine kinase? Include in your response the function of creatine kinase and the cellular events that would be most compromised by the loss of this enzyme. Be specific.

    Epithelial, squamous, cuboidal, and columnar tissues

    A student accidentally loses the labels for three epithelial tissues, squamous, cuboidal and columnar. How could you determine the correct identification of these slides? Be detailed. Give one example of where in the body tissue could be extracted and new slides of these epithelial cells could be made.

    Muscle Contraction Detailed Description

    Describe in detail a muscle contraction and relaxation from the point of the nervous stimuli. Describe all cellular structures and physiological events that occur at the cellular and tissue level that are directly involved with the muscle contraction (receptors, etc.). I am referring to skeletal muscle (like contraction of a bi

    Disease of the areolar connective tissue.

    If a disorder existed that affected areolar connective tissue, what organ structures and functions would be affected? Include at least two examples. Also include a description of the types of fibers and cells found within areolar tissue. Be detailed.

    Classification of Joints

    How are joints classified? Explain the classification of joints based on structural and functional characteristics.

    Anatomy and Physiology of Synovial Joints

    Describe the structure and function of the following structures or tissues in relation to a synovial joint: Ligament, tendon, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, bursa.

    Anatomy and Physiology of Bones

    Which category of bones (long, short, flat, irregular) has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume? What type of bone is the phalanx classified as? What two types of bone are the major submembranous site of osteoclasts? What type of bone is the major submembranous site of osteoblasts? What is th

    Heirarchy of anatomical organization of the kidneys

    I need to correlate the microscopic sturctures (cells) to the gross stuctures of the kidneys. I need to integrate into the response the heirarchy of anatomical organization from the cellular level to the organ level of the kidneys. Also, describe how the function of the kidneys correlates to the anatomical structures described

    Origin and Fate of Organs

    Origin: 1. Parasympathetic ganglion- 2. The pancreas, not just the lining- 3. Intestine, not just the lining- 4. Sensory neurons- Fate of: 1. Mesomere- 2. Mesocoel- 3. Diocoel- 4. Telocoel- 5. Notochord- 6. Sinus venosus- Thanks

    Histological Relations Describes

    List and describe 5 histological relations found between the fetal and maternal components of various mammalian placentae. Please be as detailed as you can be. Thank you!

    Incontinence in Young Children

    Why is incontinence a normal phenomenon in a child under 1 1/2 to 2 years old? What events must occur for the child to become "potty trained"?

    Case Study: Neck Injuries and Partial Paralysis of Limbs

    A 22 year old woman was in a motor accident with resultant neck injuries that led to partial paralysis of the upper and lower limbs. Sher reports that almost immediately after her chest felt heavy. Doctors in the ER observed that she was dyspneic. Her pulmonary function values were: vital capacity 650 ml min vent vol-6L/min

    Physiology case study

    I am given this info: My comments are in brackets A 26 year-old female prisoner begins a hunger strike to protest what she considers unfair prison policies. She drinks only tap water, and her only exercise is two dailyt half hour walks at approx 2.5 mph. The temp in her cell is kept at 72F. her starting weight is 70 kg (154 lb