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DNA, Chromosomes and the Genomes

RFLPs, VNTR, SNP - Definitions and Uses

What are restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), variable number tandem repeat (VNTRs), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)? What is the relationship among these? How do we use this technology to, for example, identify paternity?

Restriction Enzyme Sites Frequency in DNA

Can you please explain how to do this? Thank you! How frequently in the DNA (i.e., every how many base pairs) would you find the following restriction enzyme sequences in the DNA of an organism? Assume random and equal distribution of nucleotides and a 50:50 ratio of AT:GC. 1) Hpa II 5' -CCGG- 3' 2) Nae I 5' - GCCGGC- 3'

Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959) and Albert Bandura (1925-present) are assessed.

1) Edward Chace Tolman was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to the study of learning and motivation. How can this information be applied to schools and vocational training? 2) Albert Bandura is an expert on observational learning. What are the implications for raising children considering Bandura's

Reading Genetic Code

A three-to-one correspondence of bases to amino acids codes for 64 amino acids. What does this information tell you, considering there are only 20 amino acids.


An Escherichia coli plasmid in a closed circle with 5, 200 bp and naturally has 26 negative super coil turns. 1.Calculate the linking number for this plasmid. Assume it is adopting 10.4 bps/turn of the regular B-DNA. 2.The above super coiled plasmid has been linearized by treating with a dsDNA breaking enzyme. What's the len

trinucleotides and protein sequence

What are the protein sequences encoded by repeating units of: a) GGG b) GGA c) GGC d) GGU If the sequences are read in different reading frames, how does this affect the resulting protein sequence?

Trinucleotide Codons and Amino Acids: Example Question

The order of nucleotides is critical in determining the amino acid that is encoded. What do the following trinucleotides code for: AAC, ACA, CAA, CAC? What would be the sequence of a protein consisting of a repeat of each of these trinucleotides? If the sequence was read in a different reading frame, how would this affect th

polynucleotide codons

Once it was determined that codons consisted of three-nucleotide sequences, the specificity of each codon could be determined. Using a codon table, determine what poly U codes for. Repeat with polynucleotides of the other three bases.

Use of BLAST Online Database to Search for Protein Identity


Gender determination

1. How is sex determined in grasshoppers? Can you find other examples of organisms with a similar system of sex determination? 2. Some marine shellfish, such as limpets, become either male or female depending on where they grow. What makes one limpet a male and another a female? 3. Are there other organisms whose sex is determ

The effect of base substitution on a protein function

7. Which of the following changes (base substitutions and insertions are underlined and in bold) would have the most severe effect on the protein made from the mRNA? 5â??-AUG AGU AAA GGA UAA-3â?? a. AUG-AGU-AAG-GGA-UAA b. AUG-AGU-AAA-GGA-UAG c. AUG-GUA-AAG-GGU-UAA d. AUG-AGU-AAA-GGA-GUA-A

Primase activation

Primase is the enzyme responsible for: a. unwinding the DNA double strand to allow DNA polymerase access to the template DNA b. introducing nicks into the DNA double strand in order to prevent the formation of knots c. hydrolyzing ATP to facilitate DNA unwinding d. making short strands of RNA at the site of replication

DNA synthesis, polymerase III

Why does DNA synthesis only proceed in the 5' to 3' direction? a. because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of a polynucleotide strand b. because the 3' end of the polynucleotide molecules is more electronegative than the 5' end. c. becuase that is the direction in which the two strands of DNA unzip

DNA replication product

The final product of DNA replication is: a. mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA molecules b. a wide variety of proteins c. DNA fragments d. two DNA molecules , each of which contains one new and one old DNA strand e. the enzymes needed for further processes, such as DNA polymerase.

DNA complementary strands

Two chains of DNA must run in_____ directions(s) and must be _____ if they are to bond with each other. a. the same; uncomplementary b. opposite; uncomplementary c. parallel; uncomplementary d. parallel; complementary e. antiparallel; complementary

Why is DNA able to store large amounts of information?

Why is DNA able to store large amounts of information? a. it contains a large number of different nucleotides b. its nucleotides can be ararnged in a large number of possible sequences c. it is capable of assuming a wide variety of shapes d. the sugar and phosphates can be arranged in many different sequences e. the

The information carried by DNA is incorporated in a code specified by the:a. phosphodiester bonds of the DNA strandb. number of separate strands of DNAc. size of a particular chromosomed. specific nucleotide sequence of the DNA moleculese. number of bases in a DNA strand

The information carried by DNA is incorporated in a code specified by the: a. phosphodiester bonds of the DNA strand b. number of separate strands of DNA c. size of a particular chromosome d. specific nucleotide sequence of the DNA molecules e. number of bases in a DNA strand

Backbone of a polynucleotide chain

The two molecules that alternate to form the backbone of a polynucleotide chain are: a. adenine and thymine b. cytosine and guanine c. sugar and phosphate d. base and sugar e. base and phosphate

The sex of a human is determined by:

The sex of a human is determined by: a. the number of chromosomes b. the number of autosomes c. the presence of only one X chromosome d. the number of sex chromosomes e. the presence of a Y chromosome

Eukaryotic chromosomes

Eukaryotic Chromosomes consist of: a. circular DNA molecules complexed with positively charged nonhistone proteins b. circular DNA molecules complexed with negatively charged histone proteins c. linear DNA molecules complexed with positively charged histone proteins d. linear DNA molecules coplexed with negatively char

Define mitotic anaphase

Which of the following processes occurs during mitotic anaphase? the centromeres of each chromosome divide, sister chromatids separate, the chromatid DNA replicates, daughter chromosomes begin to move toward opposite poles of the cell or all are all true

Compare and contrast

Please pick one of the following to compare/contrast: 1. germ line engineering/gene therapy 2. transcription/translation 3. DNA/RNA 4. codon/anticodon 5. exon/intron 6. leading strand/lagging strand

Genetic testing and Who Should Have Access

Are there any conditions under which insurance companies or employers should be allowed access to the results of the test for genetic defects? Discuss this issue from the standpoint of the company or employer, the individual who was tested, and society as a whole.

Red-Green Color Blindness Overview

Maryam was surprised to discover she suffered from red-green color blindness. She told her biology professor, who responded, "your father is color-blind too, right?" How did her professor know this? Why did her professor not say the same thing to Saad, a color-blind male student in the same class?

Genetics (DNA, Mutations, Cell Division, Protein Synthesis)

Complete all three parts and answer all questions. Remember to turn in Punnett Square for Part 2. Part 1: Genetics â?" From Genes to Proteins, Mutations (Chapter 10) Overview: Genetic information in DNA is transcribed to RNA and then translated into the amino acid sequence of a Protein. A) Step 1 - Transcription: Durin