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Operating Systems

Operating systems mostly act as the middleman between a computer's programs and its hardware. Although many applications do interface directly with the computer's hardware, operating systems are needed to bridge gaps between them in issues like input and output (keyboard, mouse, speakers, and even internet components) and memory allocation. Operating systems are also the software that handles interrupts, delivers certain services as a result of an operating system (OS) call from the program, and multi-tasking. In truth, computers can seldom perform more than one or two actions at once so an OS is needed to split the processor time between programs, down to mere fractions of seconds, so that it appears to things are happening simultaneously to the user. Processor time is just one of the resources an OS must manage to allow for an efficient, clean experience on the user end - mass storage, printing and many more are dependent on the OS's 'choices'.

Because of an OS's time and resource micromanaging/accounting capabilities, most application programs rely on an OS to function. For this reason, almost everything that is a computer has an operating system of some kind. Well-known examples of today's world include Android, BSD, iOS, GNU/Linus, OS X, z/OS, QNX and Windows. All of the listed share roots in UNIX, save z/OS and Microsoft's Windows.


Categories within Operating Systems


Postings: 118

Networking is when computers exchange data between them.


Postings: 40

The computer memory is the physical device used to store information.

CPU Utilisation

Postings: 44

CPU utilization refers to the level of CPU throughput.


Postings: 16

Interrupts are commonly used techniques to for computer multitasking.

File Systems

Postings: 16

A file system is a type of data store which can be used to store, retrieve and update a set of files.

Program Execution

Postings: 75

Execution is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine carries out the instructions of a computer program.

User Interface

Postings: 111

The user interface is the space where interaction between humans and machines occurs.


Postings: 2

Multitasking is when multiple tasks take place at once.


Postings: 0

Flags for controlling applications' access to a shared resource during multi-tasking.

Computer Hardware and Operating System System

Impact of the evolution of computer hardware with respect to the evolution of operating systems software with examples of how the improvements in the hardware created the need for changes in the operating system software.

I/O CPU and Disk Activity

Your customers are complaining that the system is slow. After doing some research, you have learned that you can upgrade your disks for $8,000 to make them 2.5 times as fast as they are currently. You have also learned that you can upgrade your CPU to make it 1.4 as fast for $5,000. a. Which would you choose to yield the best p

I/O and Performance

Calculate the overall speedup that spends 40% of its time in calculations with a processor upgrade that provides for 100% greater throughput.

Database Modelling and ER Diagram

Create a table for customers. The manager tells me that this table needs to track the following information: all customers' social security number, first and last name, address, city, state and zip code, email, phone number, birth date, and date of applying for a library card. Your task is to first "sketch" a customer table (bas

IT security environments

Discuss environments where heightened levels of security are required. Are any of the security measures used in these environments foolproof? Why or why not?

MIS (Three Case Studies)

Reality Gets Better Many of us are familiar with the concept of virtual reality, either from films like Avatar and The Matrix, or from science fiction novels and video games. Virtual reality is a computer-generated, interactive, three-dimensional environment in which people become immersed. But in the past few years, a new sp

Application of Law of Total Probability

Consider a system that generates 10 million audit records per day. Also assume that there are on average 10 attacks per day on this system and that each such attack is reflected in 20 records. If the intrusion-detection system has a true-alarm rate of 0.6 and a false alarm rate of 0.0005, what percentage of alarms generated by t

security: assymetric encryption algorithm

Discuss how the asymmetric encryption algorithm can be used to achieve the following goals: a) Authentication: the receiver knows that only the sender could have generated the message. b) Secrecy: only the receiver can decrypt the message. c) Authentication and secrecy: only the receiver can decrypt the message, and the rec

Ethernet frames 10-Mbps switch

How many minimum-length Ethernet frames can a 10-Mbps switch port forward in one second, assuming no collision? The answer is 14880. Show the calculations that will yield the answer provided. Do not forget to as the Inter-frame Gap after each transmitted frame.

10base Ethernet frame size

How long does it take to transmit a 10baseT Ethernet frame that contains 256 bytes of data? Ignore the interframe gap that follows the frame. 1. Find the total number of bytes in the frame. 2. Convert the total bytes into total bits. 3. Multiply the total bits by the time for one bit. 4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 for a frame

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Development of New Technologies

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the U.S. has greatly increased the compliance obligations of publicly-traded companies. Explain how the landmark legislation affected the obligations of IT departments, and the way in which they develop and implement new technologies.

Internet Use Policy for Your Organization

Internet use policies are often utilized in companies. Conduct independent research on these and develop an Internet use policy for your organization or an organization of your choice. Specify how this is particularly relevant to your local situation, and explain why you have rejected some provisions in other Internet use docume

The Internet: Clouds and Communication Interfaces

1. We often hear about information in the "clouds." What does this mean? How has this concept changed the direction of the Internet? 2. List the benefits and drawbacks to combining voice, video, and data communications into one interface such as Skype.

E-Commerce Security and Privacy

I am looking to obtain some concepts, thoughts, and ideas regarding open environments and overly secure environments, as the concepts relate to information security. Define what is open environment and the benefits of such a process. Are there any consequences of using an open environment? Explain the benefits and consequences

Database Modeling and ER Diagram

Community library: You recently get a job offer from a local community library. The manager asks you to develop a database system to track customers and the books they check out. Task 1: Your initial assignment is to create a table for customers. The manager tells you that this table needs to track the following information:

Ethernet Frame

1. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame, in bytes? 2. What is the Maximum size of an Ethernet frame in bytes? 3. If the time for one bit 100 nanoseconds, how long does it take to transmit a minimum-sized Ethernet frame? 4. How long does it take to transmit a maximum-sized Ethernet frame? 5. How long does it take to

Authentication and Handshake Protocols

1) Please identify and describe the research direction (if any) you want to conduct in authentication and handshake protocols. 2) Please describe any research experience and/or preparation that may support you towards this research-oriented PhD study. My capstone project for the Bachelor's degree was to identify vulnerabi

Choosing a Personal Computer and Components

You have decided to purchase a personal computer system for personal use. You want to be able to do the following tasks on the computer. - Write family correspondence - Maintain an online checking account - Maintain a holiday card list with addresses - Work from home on office computer files - Send emails - Get information

Solving a shell script issue

Some operating system shells use linefeed characters 'r' as new line characters (such as some Mac OS). When a script containing these invisible characters are interpreted by Linux or *nix shells, they are flagged as errors, since *nix uses 'n' as new lines. For example they might produce the following error: command not found li

Database Design Crow Diagram.

Draw an IE Crow's Foot E-R diagram for the entities DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE and the 1:N relationship between them. Assume that a DEPARTMENT does not need to have an EMPLOYEE, but that every EMPLOYEE is assigned to a DEPARTMENT. Include appropriate identifiers and attributes for each entity. Give examples of binary 1:N relatio

Ethical, Legal and Security Responsibilities in Informatics

What are some of the ethical, legal and security responsibilities health care organizations must address when they implement health care database?  How does a regional health information organization (RHIO) or health information exchange (HIE) function? How do they actually exchange data?  Should a health care organizat