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To Muslims, Islam is the original monotheistic faith from Adam to Jesus, with Muhammad as the last prophet of God, Allah. Muhammad collected the teachings of God in the Qur’an.¹ Islam is the second largest religion in the world.¹ There are five pillars of Islam, which include¹:

  • Testimony – there are no other Gods but Allah and Muhammad is his Messenger.
  • Prayer – Salat (ritual prayer) is to be performed five times a day.
  • Alms-giving – Zakat is giving to those who are poor and in need.
  • Fasting – During Ramadhan no food or drink should be consumed from dawn to dusk.
  • Pilgrimage – at least once in a Muslim person’s life, during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah, a pilgrimage to Mecca is expected.

Caliphs are the heads of state in Muslim communities and are considered the successors of Muhammad.¹

On those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, will (Allah) Most Gracious bestow love. [19:96]

There are two main denominations in Islam²:

Sunni – The largest group, which believes that caliphs are chosen based on righteousness and not birth.
Shia – They believe that Muhammad chose his nephew to be his successor, who was the first Imam (leader of the Muslim people).

While Islam identifies Jesus as a prophet of God, it does not recognize the idea of the trinity that Christians believe in.  God is one, and he is a personal God that Muslims can call upon directly.² Muslim people believe in predestination; that Allah knows and controls all that happens.  They also believe in a day of resurrection, when all people will be judged on their actions, good and bad.² The Qur’an is a collection of God’s revelations to Muhammad, a guide to how Muslim people should live.



Image source:

1. Antonio Melina/Agência Brasil


1. The Religion of Islam. Retrieved May 22, 2014, from

2. The Economist. What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Muslims? Retrieved May 22, 2014, from

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