Explore BrainMass

Programming Languages

A programming language is a constructed language, as opposed to natural languages likes English and Mandarin, which is designed as a middleman between the human programmer who inputs the code and the machine that only understands low-level assembly language (which is then further broken down until ultimately being 1s and 0s). The code that a programmer types is bound by rules known as syntax, not entirely unlike the grammar of a natural language. There are significant differences in the underlying philosophies and architectures of these languages, yet their syntactic differences are generally not enough to make one completely incomprehensible to a programmer trained in another. See the examples of variable declaration and initialization statements below:

Programming language How to declare an integer variable and assign it the value of 5
C int foo = 5;
Java int foo = 5;
Python foo = 5
Perl my $foo = 5;
MATLAB foo = 5;
Javascript var foo = 5;
PHP $foo = 5;

'foo' and 'bar' are common metasyntactic placeholders in example code from the programming community

Previously, procedural languages like C reflected the predominant industry paradigm but over the past decade there has been a definite shift toward object-orientated programming. Most modern languages at least support object-orientated programming - several to the exclusion of all else. However, both paradigms share the fundamental need to express algorithms in their languages, using loopsfunctions and variables. Most of the most popular languages in use today - C(++), Java, etc. - are general-purpose, but some equally successful ones in their specific fields were designed with narrower purposes, such as MATLAB and SQL which are for numerical operations and database management respectively. The majority of computer programming languages are entirely textual, though some, such as Visual Basic, have a graphical component.

The idea of a programming language actually pre-dates computers themselves - the technology was initially thought up to direct the behavior of Jacquard looms, player pianos and similar machines. However, the first computer programmer is generally considered to be Ada Lovelace who wrote the first algorithm ever intended to be carried out by a machine in 1842. It was designed for Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. The first true programming languages were the assembly codes of 1940s computers.

First computer ever invented. Image credit: Anasalialmalla

Categories within Programming Languages


Postings: 726

Java is a popular general-purpose object-oriented language specifically designed to reduce implementation dependencies.


Postings: 202

C is a popular general-purpose procedural language that is the longest-stayer in industry today.


Postings: 573

C++ is an enhanced version of C that supports object-orientated programming (OOP).


Postings: 56

C# is the most recent 'upgrade' from C and supports OOP as well as being more high-level than C and C++.


Postings: 13

Python is a popular language designed to be simple, accessible, flexible and forgivable.


Postings: 112

JavaScript is perhaps the most widely-used language for client-side web programming, and supports both procedural and object-orientated programming.


Postings: 26

The Perl family of mostly scripting languages that borrows heavily from C, Bash and AWK.


Postings: 40

PHP is a popular server-side programming language designed for web development.

Visual Basic

Postings: 245

Visual Basic is Microsoft's event-driven language with a large graphical component, made to be accessible for beginners.


Postings: 44

MATLAB is a numerical language/environment that finds heavy use in applied science industries and academics thanks to its graphing capabilities.


Postings: 173

SQL is a mostly declarative language designed to manipulate relations database management systems.

An Assembly Language Program

Design and write an assembly language program for the MARIE processor that counts the number of occurrences of a particular word value in an array of words. This program must perform the required function and must satisfy the following requirements. a) The first instruction of the program must be placed at location (addres

High-Low Game in C++

Build a code in C++ that will play the high-lo game. Hi-Lo Game This game will ask the user to guess a number between 0 and 10. Suppose the game wants to guess the number 7. The game will keep helping the user to guess the number until the user enters 7. A sample output will look like the following: Welcome to the Hi-

Future of the Internet

Assess the practical uses of jQuery and HTML and the future of these topics. Evaluate the effect they may have in influencing the future of the Web. Answer to be 500-550 words Include all references

Debug Facilities, BlueJ, & Donald Knuth

The BlueJ development environment offers simple but sufficient debugging facilities for those new to and learning the art of programming. Renowned computer scientist Don Knuth once in an interview made an interesting comment. When asked what his favorite programming language was, he replied that it would be the language that ha

Processing and setup Step for the following Oracle App Below.

Put together the processing and setup Step for the following Oracle App Below. Oracle Processing Setup Step for the following: Put together the processing and setup Step for the following Oracle App Below. 1. Accounts Receivable 2. Order Management 3. Project Contracts 4. Project management 5. Purchasing 6. Payables

Caesar Cipher Programming

See the attached file. I am looking to get some help on an upcoming task that includes creating a Caesar cipher, a character frequency generator, and a combination of the two in order to use the frequency generator to decrypt a message using the highest frequency value as the key. The problem must be coded in c, c++, or python

Suppose you have a class CBird that you want to use as a base class for deriving a hierarchy of bird classes. Is it reasonable to create a CHawk by deriving from CBird? How about a COstrich? Justify your answers. Derive an avian hierarchy that can cope with both of these birds.

How are derived classes and base classes related in these exercises: 1. What is wrong with the following code? class CBadClass { private: int len; char* p; public: CBadClass(const char* str): p(str), len(strlen(p)) {} CBadClass(){} }; 2. Suppose you have a class CBird, as follows, that you want to use as a base

Structures and Classes

Use the example on p. 355 (screenshot attached) of the text to create your own structure related to an overtime pay calculator and define the variables needed within your structure to perform those calculations. Define and create a base class using the same variables that may serve the same function as the structure.

Overtime pay compile errors

Use the following code to complete your Overtime Pay Compile Errors assignment. #include <io> #include <string> #include <iomanip> using namespace std; //Global Declarations of Variables double iovertime_hours=0, iovertime pay=0, iovertime_extra=0; int ihours, iwage ; string cname ; int main () {

Language of Words:Strings, Pseudocode and Recursive Function

Consider a language of words, where each word is a string of dots and dashes. The following grammar describes this language: < word> = < dot> | < dash> < word> | < word> < dot> < dot> = . < dash> = - a) Write all three-character strings that are in this language. b) Is the string .... in this language? Explain. c) Writ

Programming: Classes and objects

Exercise 1: Give a C++ class declaration called SavingsAccount with the following information: Operations (Member Functions) 1. Open account (with an initial deposit). This is called to put initial values in dollars and cents. 2. Make a deposit. A function that will add value to dollars and cents 3. Make a withdrawal. A func

Classes and objects

The code is attached below. Provide operator overloading functions to facilitate the following operations on any complex numbers A, B and C: a. A == B; overload Boolean operator == to test if A and B are equal b. C = A*B; overload multiplication operator * c. C = A/B; overload division operator / d. A = B; overload assignm

Web Programming and ASP.NET/C#

Dear OTA - Please explain the following in several clear, concise paragraphs. 1) Name 3 other web programming frameworks besides ASP.NET. Describe the ways that ASP.NET is different than other web programming frameworks. 2) Both C and C++ are designed with the philosophy of keeping the core language as simple as possible a

Read and Understand Code

Read and Understand Code What is the length of the line being drawn? g.drawLine (50, 20, 50, 350); What is the (x, y) coordinate of the lower-right corner of the rectangle being drawn? g.drawRect (10, 20, 250, 350); _______________________________________________________________________________ Fill in the code This code

COBOL Programming

Hi, I need some help trying to understand the "MOVE" statement in COBOL programming. Can someone help with the following items? 1.) When do you need to move data, and how is this achieved in your code? 2) In order for the example below to work, could you have a variable named "field"? How would the variables on either sid

Prepare Final Table List and Rationale

Promotion time is coming around the corner!! In the last board meeting, your supervisor has asked someone to create a list of tables for a Fernandos Skate Shop customer orders. Use the following preliminary field list and list of subjects to get started. Realize that the lists are incomplete, and you may need to add more informa

Ethics in Comp. Profession.

Some people lament the fact that the printed newspaper's popularity is declining so alarmingly that some of the children of the new generations have never read (or will read) a printed newspaper. What will they miss? Is anything of significant personal or social value being lost? If so, what? If not, why not? Is this change good

Programming: Software Testing

Briefly discuss software testing as a career path, what skills would be desirable for a software tester. Explain why the rules for the order of operations are necessary; give an example to back up your explanation. The techniques for solving linear equations and linear inequalities are similar, yet different. Explain and

Intro to C Programming

1. Write a conditional that assigns true ( 1 ) to the variable fever if the variable temperature is greater than 98.6 . 2.Write a conditional that assigns 10,000 to the variable bonus if the value of the variable goodsSold is greater than 500,000 . 3 Write an if/else statement that compares the double variable p


Discuss the process of formal software testing, including regression testing. Why is this done? Discuss software testing as a career path, and consider what skills would be desirable for a software tester. .

Creating a UML Sequences Diagram

Please help create a sequence diagram for a use case. Perform the following tasks: Review your text-based use case for the Broadway Entertainment Company (BEC) Identify the boundary, control, and entity classes that are needed for implementing this use case. Use the Violet UML modeling tool to create a sequence diagra

Effect of variations in organisational (and societal) culture on large projects

Do you think that variations in organizational (and societal) culture could pose a significant problem when coordinating or scheduling large projects, where the team members come from different collaborating firms and/or geographical areas? If so, are there any suggestions for viable guidelines that may be followed in those c

Re-usability in the Procedural and Object Oriented Languages

Re-usability is the ability to use code written for another situation. Most languages and programming paradigms support re-usability in some form. Create a report about re-usability in the procedural and object oriented languages. These two paradigms support re-usability in different ways. Document the differences in a Word doc

Individual and Group Decision-Making

Describe and discuss the differences between individual and group decision-making. Support your arguments through examples or other sorts of evidence.