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Human Biology

Physiological Effects of Various Hormones

1. After removing the painful kidney stone, which of the following might be part of a treatment plan and why? a. Low calcium diet b. Vitamin D c. Oral PTH therapy d. Surgery for removal of what part of the thyroid gland 2. For each of the following explain the physiological effects of excessive secretion of the following

Basic Functions of Kidneys' Filtration Role - An Analogy

Pretend you are cleaning your garage but the big door is stuck. You can only move things through the smaller "people" door. So the cars and riding lawn mower have to stay in the garage. This is analogous to the pores in the glomerulus. They are larger than ordinary capillary pores but still not large enough to let everything out

The Kidney and Alcohol

Please help with the following. Examine the body mechanics that occur when someone drinks alcohol: 1) How drinking alcohol affects the body's water volume. 2) How the kidney regulates blood volume. 3) How consumption of alcohol affects the kidney.

Analysis of Multiple State Obesity Charts

See the attached file(s). I am having trouble interpreting the 2 different tables that are attached (The tables are supposed to demonstrate how the BRFSS and CDC Wonder health databases can be used as a simple Decision Support System). Problem: 1. In a short paragraph, please summarize the tables to assist senior managem

hormonal feedback loops

1. Explain how hormonal feedback loops work. 2. What is a set-point? 3. What is leptin, and how does it affect appetite? 4. What role does the melanocortin 4 receptor, or MC4R, play in obesity? If someone asks you if obesity is genetic or behavioral, how would you respond? Do you think obesity is an epidemic? Why or

This solution details the types of infections that are common in three types of inherited immunodeficienies: complement C8 deficiency; X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (Bruton's disease); and selective IgA deficiency. It explains the underlying basis of why these patients are susceptible to these particular infections.

For each of the following conditions: 1) complement C8 deficiency: a defect that results in the functional absence of the eighth complement cascade. C8 is involved in the complement lytic pathway. 2) X- linked agammaglobulinaemia (Bruton's disease) :This affects an enzyme that is required for B cell development so pre B cell

Comparing Internal and External Antigen Presentation Pathways

Describe the similarities and differences between the processing of intracellular vs extracellular antigens. Provide a table detailing these similarities and differences. Compare and contrast the internal and external pathways of antigen processing and presentation to T cells. Make a table with 2 columns (one for each path

The Risk Factors for Mycotoxicosis in Food Producing Animals

Please address the following about Patulin: 1.) The effect of patulin on the appropriate food animal(s). 2.) The food safety/public health of each patulin. 3.) The risk factors for mycotoxicosis in food producing animals and how the appropriate animal exposure to mycotoxins can be prevented at the pre-harvest level. Not

Rapidly Dividing Tissue Types

Certain cells in the body stay in Gap 0 and rarely, if ever, divide. Name 2 cell types in the human body that do not divide. Other cell types in the body divide frequently (cycle fast). Name 1 tissue type in the body that divides often. Why does this tissue type need to divide frequently?

Diabetes Mellitus

What are the similarities and differences between starvation and diabetes mellitus?

Five questions addressing hormones and metabolism

Case Study 3: Gigantism is abnormally large growth during childhood caused by excess growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Robert Wadlow, born on February 22, 1918, weighed a normal eight pounds, six ounces. However, by the time Robert reached the age of six months old, he weighed 30 pounds (Hamilton, 1993). W

An overview of spinal cord injuries is presented.

Discuss some of the challenges, possibilities and goals for treating spinal cord injuries. Please include the pros and cons behind treatment options (for example, stem cells as well as the information at the Christopher Reeve Foundation site).

Decline of synapses in the prefrontal and visual cortex

In the prefrontal cortex, what ages show the greatest rate of decline in synapses (can you give approx. number of synapses per age)? Same question for the visual cortex? What accounts for this synaptic rearrangement and why does it occur when it does?

Mice Genetic Experiment: Hypothesis Testing

One can create "knockout" mice that are missing a specific gene through a process called gene targeting. An investigator created such a mouse for a cell surface receptor expressed by the vast majority of B and T lymphocytes called Mel-14. After creating mice homozygous for this mutation (termed Mel-14-/-), she compared the numbe

Discussion on various endocrinology questions.

This solution discusses four endocrinology questions: 1. List the four mechanisms involved in the regulation of aldosterone secretion. 2. Mr. Sanchez makes an appointment to see his doctor for pain in his abdominal area. Tests and x-rays reveal kidney stones as well as bones with a moth-eaten appearance. Further questionin

Duel-receptor vs. Altered Self models in T cells

The two proposed models of T-cell recognition are the Duel-receptor and Altered Self theories. We now know that thanks to the experimentation done by J.W. Kappler, the Altered Self model is the correct of the two. But suppose back before this was known, what sort of experiment could we maybe do in order to differentiate betwe

areal density and mean spacing

The area fraction associated with membrane proteins in the red blood cell (diameter = 8 µm) membrane is roughly 23%, while the lipids themselves take up roughly 77% of the membrane area. a.Approximately how many phospholipids make up the red blood cell membrane? b.How many membrane proteins would you estimate are in the r

Graft Versus Host Disease in twins debate

Please use at least 300 words to answer the following questions, and include references as part of your solution. Does Graft Versus Host Disease ever occur between identical twins? If so, what is the reasoning?

L. monocytogenes

1.) Discuss the zero tolerance policy for L. monocytogenes in the U.S. relative to the control policies in other countries.

E.Coli overview

1.) Summarize the characteristics of the strains of E. coli that are intestinal pathogens.

Transposition of the great vessels

What are the physiological consequences of this defect for Maria, a newborn baby, who needs surgery because she was born with an aorta that rises from the right ventricle and a pulmonary trunk that issues from the left ventricle, a position that is called transposition of the great vessels.