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Human Biology

What if there was a meningitis outbreak?

The Centers for Disease Control has contacted you and other microbiologists to review a recent increase in the number of meningitis cases in your city. The director of the organization is requesting information in regards to the various types of microorganisms which can cause meningitis. I need help for these topics: 1. I ne

Muscular Diseases: Mysethenia Gravis

Provide an overview of the disease process involved in Myesthenia Gravis. 1. Describe normal anatomy/physiology of muscle contraction. 2. Discuss the anatomy/physiology of the pathological process involved in Myesthenia Gravis. Specifically, focus on how normal anatomy/physiology has been altered to present the disease state.

Skin Disorders

Please help with the following questions... What is the normal anatomy and physiology of the skin? What are the functions, layers, skin appendages, and cells found in the skin? Using Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) for example how is the normal anatomy and physiology of the skin is altered in the diseased state?

Urinalysis Majority of Glomerular Disorders

Renal Disease 1. The majority of glomerular disorders are caused by: a. Sudden drops in blood pressure b. Immunologic disorders c. Exposure to toxic substances d. Bacterial infections 2. Broad and waxy casts are most frequently seen with a. Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure b. Rapidly progressive

Helicobacter pylori

Describe Helicobacter pylori. What major enzymes does this organism produce to enable it to survive in the host? How common is an H. pylori infection? What is the age and social distribution of people infected by this organism? Describe in detail the likely pathogenic process. Which gastrointestinal disorders are associated with

Ciguatera Toxin vs. PSP Toxin

Summarize and compare the vectors involved and the mechanism of action on a cellular level of ciguatera toxin and PSP toxin.

Statistical Analysis in Epidemiology

Please help with the following problem. Provide step by step solutions. Questionnaire responses were examined for illness first occurring, or intensifying, after May 1, 1973. Of 78 different health questions asked, only 6 conditions showed sufficient numbers of positive responses (10 or more) to permit statistical analysis.

Outbreak Investigations

Both the Legionnaire's Outbreak and the SARS Outbreak involved previously unknown agents, separated in time by 27 years. Please list three similarities between the two investigations, and three differences.

Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Differences

#1 Define blood pressure. Differentiate between systolic and diastolic blood pressure. What is "normal" blood pressure for a young adult? #2 What is the function of capillaries? How is their structure and arrangement especially suited to their function? #3 Identify and discuss the factors that contribute to systemic vas

Pulmonary Circuit for Heart Disease

1. Explain how regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease. 2. Define stroke volume and discuss how stroke volume can be altered. Explain the effect of changes in stroke volume on cardiac output using the appropriate formula for determining cardiac output. 3. Trace the path of one drop of blood from the time it en

Physiological Basis for Medical Advice

In a few sentences each question, I will expand it, I need some idea and pointers, thank you! 1. Kevin's father has been advised by his physician to take an aspirin a day "to reduce his risk of heart attack." What is the physiological basis for this advice? 2. Natalya is concerned because her feces are a chalky white color. E

Pathophysiological Process - Muscular Dystrophy

Name one pathophysiological process that is related to the muscular system. 1. Provide an overview of the pathological process you have selected. 2. Describe normal anatomy/physiology of the process involved. 3. Discuss the anatomy/physiology of the pathological process of the condition you have selected. Specifically

Use of artificial erythropoietin (EPO) in medicine and in sports

Describe some of the positive and negative uses of artificial erythropoietin (EPO) in medicine and in sports. What do you think about the current rules which ban EPO use by Olympic athletes? You may start your discussion by describing the source and function of natural EPO.

Quick EKG Reference Sheet

A quick EKG reference sheet with all of the basic facts about EKGs is something that I always wished I could find as a student so I decided to create one for anyone that would like it. This includes normal values, abnormal values, and tips about rhythms commonly seen.

Maintaining Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

Detail the hormones responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and compare the compensatory mechanism employed in respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

Types of Reflexes in the Nervous System

1. Distinguish between the following: (a) somatic and visceral reflexes, (b) spinal and cranial reflexes, and (c) innate and acquired reflexes. 2. Describe the functions of the ventricles of the brain and the choroid plexus, including their role in the formation and maintenance describe the functions of the ventricles of the

Autism and Immune Dysfunction

Currently, there is a link between autism and immune dysfunction. Please develop a research hypothesis and then describe how you would test the hypothesis to support the link between autism and immune dysfunction. Include experimental methodologies and appropriate controls.

Ear Disorders- Meniere's Syndrome

Ear Disorders A 32-year-old man has vertigo, nausea, and hearing problems. He was diagnosed with Meniere's syndrome. 1. What causes the vertigo in this patient? 2. How should this patient be treated? 3. Why might there be permanent loss of hearing and loss of equilibrium?

Recovery Time for Burns

The Smith family is caught in the fire but escaped. Unfortunately, the father and daughter suffered burns. The father has second degree burns on his chest,abdomen, and both arms and third degree burns on his entire lower extremities. The daughter suffered first degree burns on her head and neck and second degree burns on a lower

Respiratory and Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis

1. Detail the hormones responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. 2. Compare the compensatory mechanism employed in respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. 3. Compare the compensatory mechanism employed in metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.

Cardiac Output Homeostasis and Blood Distribution

The attached table illustrates the distribution of the systemic cardiac output to the various organs at rest and during strenuous exercise. What physiological mechanisms produce the changes in blood distribution in each system depicted in the table? Consider the competing homeostatic demands strenuous exercise places on the bod

CAM Therapies Compared to Traditional Allopathic Methods

Hello i am attaching article. This article attempts to understand the reasons some individuals turn to CAM therapies rather than traditional allopathic methods of healing. The authors specifically wish to create a profile of the most likely candidates to use CAM therapies. Findings indicate that a wide variety of factors and att

Acetylcholine Mother Bear Experience

Mark and Dave are hiking. The hikers surprise a mother bear and her two cubs on the trail. The mother bear makes it clear about being unhappy that she was surprised by the two hikers. Mark is taking a medication that specifically blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and Dave is taking a medication that specifically blocks n

Adaptation and Altitude Sickness ("Chronic Mountain Sickness")

Individual who remain at high altitude for too long can develop chronic mountain sickness. It is characterized by the following clinical sequence: 1. an extremely high hematocrit, 2. an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and 3. an enlarged right side of the heart. As it progresses, congestive heart failure and death ensues u

Action potential calculation with Nernst Equation

A population of typical neurons is maintained in culture in the lab. The media bathing the neurons has an extracellular concentration of Cl- of 110mmol/L. A particular neuron maintains an intracellular Cl- concentration of 4mmol/L. At what membrane potential could Cl- be closest to electrochemical equilibrium in that cell?

ANS Structure and Neural Pathways

The functions of this division of the nervous system are implied in its name! The ANS regulates the "automatic" functions of body...heartrate, respiration, digestion, just to name a few. Let's describe the structures of the ANS, along with their neural pathways! Then, let's discuss the negative feedback system needed for norm

Hormones and Sex Differentiation

The presence or absence of testosterone determines whether a mammal will differentiate as a male of female - estrogens have no effect. In birds, it is the opposite: the presence or absence of estrogen is critical. What problems would sex determination by estrogen create if that were the mechanism for mammals? Why do those proble