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Logic & Critical Thinking

Modern Square of Opposition

Use the Modern Square of opposition to determine whether the following inferences are valid. (To do this, state the type of proposition each is and show how the one does or doesn't imply the other.) a. No country music singers are musicians who despise twang. Therefore, some country music singers are not musicians who des

Venn Diagrams

Write an A proposition, an E proposition, an O proposition, and an I proposition. Do Venn Diagrams for each.

Changing the quality & quantity of statements

4.Change the quality and the quantity: (2 points each) a. All pedo-paranoiacs are people who fear their shoes.. b. No national politicians are people who hate fundraisers. c. Some students at Cascadia are not people who carry cell phones. d. No logic exams are tests looked forward to with great glee. p e. Some spi

Changing the quantity of statements

Change the quantity, but not the quality in the following statements a.Some US Presidents are not people who understand foreign policy. b. All logic instructors who support their students are instructors why try hard.. c. No furry cats are animals that are not furry d. Some football stadiums are structures that rese


What are the identity element e, the inverse y and the zero element d for the multiplication operator? See attachment


What does it mean for the operator ? to be distributive over the operator # ?

Given/Find Logic

Given: f (x) = (x - 3)² g (x) = 2x x = 5 Find: (a) f ° g (x) (b) g ° f (x)

Symbolize sentences.

Symbolize the following sentences. (a) If Howie is a fish, then all children are fish. (b)There is a spotted frog. (c)All frogs are spotted. (d)Frankenstein is big and tall.

Logic Proofs

Complete the following proof directly or indirectly. Problem is attach due to character limitations.

Logic Proofs are completed.

A) Translate the following argument into symbols: "If either Melissa likes dogs or Jason likes cats, then Ned likes birds. Ned does not like birds. Therefore, Melissa does not like dogs." (Use the propositional variables M, J and N, respectively.) b) Complete a proof of the argument from part (a).

Logic Proofs

Complete the following proof using Indirect Proof. the problem is attatched in a word file due to character limitations.

Logic Proofs

Complete the following proof using the Deduction Theorem. The problem is attatched in a word file because of character limitations.


The arguments for the existence of God, as famously outlined in the five ways of Thomas Aquinas (in his Summa Theologica) were meant to provide a convincing proof for the existence of God. It was not original with Aquinas. From the very beginnings of Western Philosophy, Pre-Socratic philosophers argued for a transcendent being

Symbolize and prove the arguments provided

Use conjective symbols and the nine valid inference rules MP, MT, SIMP, CONJ, ABS, ADD, DS, HS Either animals are mere mechanisms (M) or they feel pain (P). If either animals feel pain or they have souls (S), then they have a right not to be subjected to needless pain (R) and humans have a duty not to inflict needless pain

Philosophy questions - argument fallacious

1.not our man. If Jones committed the crime, then he wouldn't pass a "lie-detector" (i.e. polygraph) test. But, as a matter of fact, he did pass the test. a)Why is the argument fallacious? (and it is!) 2. The following argument is valid but fallacious. If most animal species are changing over time, then the theory of evo

Philosophy arguments

1. Arguments are inductive if they are invalid. (True or false and Explain why??) 2. A valid argument can have a false conclusion. (Explain why and If true, then give an example??) 3. The claim "The earth is round" is a valid statement. (True or false and Explain why??) 4. A logically sound argument may

Writing Simple Arguments in Standard Form

What are the standard forms of the arguments that follow? a. Women live longer than men, on the average. So, you will probably live longer than your husband! b. Subliminal advertising is quite common. Why? Hundreds of studies have shown that subliminal persuasion works. You end up buying things you neither want nor need:

Examples of premises and conclusions are presented.

True and false questions. Explain the answer and give an example. A. A valid argument may have a false premise and a true conclusion. Give an example. B. If an argument has all true premises and a true conclusion, then it is always a reasonable (good) argument. Give an example.

Logic statements are presented.

Explain whether the following is true or false. A. All reasonable arguments are true. B. The claim "If it is raining, the exposed surfaces will be wet" is an argument composed of simple statements.

Lateral Thinking: Car Scenario

Scenario: A young man's car developed a flat tire as he was driving along a deserted street. He pulled over to the curb and did all the usual things: removed the hub cap, unscrewed the lugs and rested them carefully in the hub cap, jacked up the car. Just as he was finishing up they all rolled out, and all five of them fell dow


1. Using one or more analogies, try to make a brief argument for or against these moral issues: ABORTION GUN CONTROL EUTHANASIA CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

New information helps or hurts conclusions

For each of the following arguments, try to think of some critical information that could weaken or discount the conclusion. How could the argument be expressed to eliminate the weakness? 1. Generally, women prefer men of high status. Celestina is a woman. Therefore, Celestina probably prefers men of high status. 2. Genera


SYLLOGISM VALIDITY TESTING EXERCISE To be a valid syllogism, the conclusion must be proven by the reasons. Carefully study the following syllogisms and decide if they are valid or invalid: 1. All zebras are striped animals. No zebras are polar bears. Therefore, no polar bears are striped animals. 2. All clowns are fun