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Logic & Critical Thinking

Truth Tables

How do you use truth tables to show if an argument is valid or not??? a.Ray is thinking about his study plans. He thinks: If I don't study, then I won't do well on the test.: Therefore, if I do well, then I have studied. Is Ray's inference valid? I set it up so that: S=I study W=I do well on the test Ray's argume

Truth Tables

I don't get how to set up truth tables with the operator symbols. How do I know what operator to put where? Can you help???? a.George Washington was the 20th U.S. President only if Thomas Jefferson played in a band with Britney Spears. b.Either George W. Bush is the current President and Bill Clinton is his vice-president

David Hume's "Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding"

Hello, I've just started reading David Hume's "Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding" and I'm trying to figure out why Hume argues (look in part 1 of Section 4) that knowledge of "causes & effects" can't be gained through reason alone? Why can't it be? I think it's logical that reason works alone sufficiently. Please explain

Standard Categorical Form

Translate the following into standard categorical form: a. Unfair card games are not fun b. All cats except sphinxes have fur. c. Belgian waffles are not from Belgium d. All California politicians do not have particularly huge egos. e. The World Series of baseball is never played in December. f. A few logic s

Contraposing propositions

Contrapose the following propositions and state whether the converse is logically equivalent or not logically equivalent to the original. a. Some boats without sails are not crafts that are unsinkable. b. Some unsuccessful people are not incompetent people c. Some flammable objects are objects that are unsafe for babie

Obverting propositions

Obvert the following propositions and state whether the converse is logically equivalent or not logically equivalent to the original. (2 points each) a. No Tour de France riders are athletes who are unable to ride no-handed. b. Some tuition hikes are not actions fair to students.

Converting Propositions

8.Convert the following propositions and state whether the converse is logically equivalent or not logically equivalent to the original. a. Some types of celebrations are not occasions that foster family harmony. b. All dipsomaniacs are friends of Jim Beam.

Venn Diagrams

7.Use Venn diagrams to evaluate these inference. Be sure to label your diagrams: ( a. It is false that some baseball players are people who do not take steroids. Therefore, no baseball players are people who do not take steroids. b. All bride grooms are nervous wrecks. Therefore, it is false that some bridge grooms are

Modern Square of Opposition

Use the Modern Square of opposition to determine whether the following inferences are valid. (To do this, state the type of proposition each is and show how the one does or doesn't imply the other.) a. No country music singers are musicians who despise twang. Therefore, some country music singers are not musicians who des

Venn Diagrams

Write an A proposition, an E proposition, an O proposition, and an I proposition. Do Venn Diagrams for each.

Changing the quality & quantity of statements

4.Change the quality and the quantity: (2 points each) a. All pedo-paranoiacs are people who fear their shoes.. b. No national politicians are people who hate fundraisers. c. Some students at Cascadia are not people who carry cell phones. d. No logic exams are tests looked forward to with great glee. p e. Some spi

Changing the quantity of statements

Change the quantity, but not the quality in the following statements a.Some US Presidents are not people who understand foreign policy. b. All logic instructors who support their students are instructors why try hard.. c. No furry cats are animals that are not furry d. Some football stadiums are structures that rese


What are the identity element e, the inverse y and the zero element d for the multiplication operator? See attachment


What does it mean for the operator ? to be distributive over the operator # ?

Given/Find Logic

Given: f (x) = (x - 3)² g (x) = 2x x = 5 Find: (a) f ° g (x) (b) g ° f (x)

Symbolize sentences.

Symbolize the following sentences. (a) If Howie is a fish, then all children are fish. (b)There is a spotted frog. (c)All frogs are spotted. (d)Frankenstein is big and tall.

Logic Proofs

Complete the following proof directly or indirectly. Problem is attach due to character limitations.

Logic Proofs are completed.

A) Translate the following argument into symbols: "If either Melissa likes dogs or Jason likes cats, then Ned likes birds. Ned does not like birds. Therefore, Melissa does not like dogs." (Use the propositional variables M, J and N, respectively.) b) Complete a proof of the argument from part (a).

Logic Proofs

Complete the following proof using Indirect Proof. the problem is attatched in a word file due to character limitations.

Logic Proofs

Complete the following proof using the Deduction Theorem. The problem is attatched in a word file because of character limitations.


The arguments for the existence of God, as famously outlined in the five ways of Thomas Aquinas (in his Summa Theologica) were meant to provide a convincing proof for the existence of God. It was not original with Aquinas. From the very beginnings of Western Philosophy, Pre-Socratic philosophers argued for a transcendent being

Symbolize and prove the arguments provided

Use conjective symbols and the nine valid inference rules MP, MT, SIMP, CONJ, ABS, ADD, DS, HS Either animals are mere mechanisms (M) or they feel pain (P). If either animals feel pain or they have souls (S), then they have a right not to be subjected to needless pain (R) and humans have a duty not to inflict needless pain

Philosophy questions - argument fallacious

1.not our man. If Jones committed the crime, then he wouldn't pass a "lie-detector" (i.e. polygraph) test. But, as a matter of fact, he did pass the test. a)Why is the argument fallacious? (and it is!) 2. The following argument is valid but fallacious. If most animal species are changing over time, then the theory of evo