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Electrical Engineering

Minimum Signal to Noise Ratio in dB

15 Mhz of total spectrum is divided into 75 separate communication channels of equal bandwidth. Each of the 75 separate communication channels will have a data rate of 270 kbps. Determine the minimum signal to noise ratio (s/n) in dB required in each communication channel to achieve a data rate of 270 kbps?

Required Channel Bandwidth

In a given communications system, one signaling element is used to represent 64 bits. The required data rate is 1.789 Mbps. Determine the minimum required channel bandwidth to support this communication.

Examing Z Transform, Poles and Zeros

We examine the z transform X(z) = (1 - z^-10)/(1 - z^-1) and use properties of the general z transform to find the discrete time signal x(n). We also expand X(z) into its polynomial in terms of z^-1 and find the polynomials degree and the coefficients We finally plot the poles and zeros of X(z) in the xz plane and examine

Mapping of discrete functions in the z and s planes

The transform from the s to the z plane using the transform z = e^sT(s) is used to obtain an inverse transform in terms of s , namely s = Ln(z)/T(s) This is then used to find the s plane mapping of z = e^jw The s palne plot is then made for -pi <= w <= pi and the poles and zeros plotted

Analysis of digital signal over twisted pair cable

A data transmission system transmits data at 0.772 Mbps over a twisted pair cable. The line is equalized such that the transfer function of the line from 0 Hz to 500 kHz has constant attenuation and linear phase shift with frequency. The transmitter and receiver have ideal baseband RRC filters with filter rolloff = 0.25. At

Examination of a Terrestrial Communications Link

See the attached file. A terrestrial radio link is used to send digital data over a long distance. The RF channel has a bandwidth of 250 kHz. The transmitter and receiver have ideal RRC filters with Rolloff = 0.25. a. What is: i. The maximum symbol rate that can transmitted over this link without ISI? ii. The bit rat

Twisted Pair Telco Line

A twisted pair telephone line one mile in length is used to carry digital data at a rate Rb bit/s. The line is equalized so that the attenuation is constant at 50 dB over the frequency range 0 Hz to 400 kHz. The phase response of the line is equalized so that it is linear with frequency over this range. Data is transmitted ov

BPSK/QPSK Line of Sight

A line of sight wireless link is established between two points at a distance of 1.0 km using a frequency of 2.40 GHz. Digital data is to be transmitted over the link at a rate of 200 kbps. The transmitter and receiver have ideal RRC bandpass filters with ? = 0.25. a. What RF bandwidth is required to send the data using

RF Signals

A Ku band satellite link has a carrier frequency of 14.125 GHz and carries a symbol stream at Rs = 40 Msps. The transmitter and receiver have ideal RRC filters with ? = 0.25. a. What is the RF bandwidth occupied by signal? b. What is the frequency range of the transmitted RF signal?

Microwave line of sight link

A microwave line of sight link has a single hop.. The link has an RF channel with a bandwidth 10 MHz. The transmitter and receiver have ideal RRC filters with ? = 0.25. a. What is correct symbol rate (pulse rate) for this link? b. What is the bit rate with BPSK modulation? c. What is the bit rate with QPSK mod

Telecommunications Base Station

Problem 1: In a typical mobile communications base station (or cell site), a radio frequency (RF) signal is amplified in the base station and then sent (over cable) to the antennas at the top of the tower. Consider the case where a RF signal is applied to a 20 dB amplifier in the base station. The cable loss between this ampl

Data math channels

1st problem: What is the channel capacity for a channel with a 300 Hz bandwidth and as S/N = 3? 2nd problem: Given a channel with a 50 kHz bandwidth and a S/N = 127, determine: â?¢ Maximum signaling rate in baud â?¢ Maximum channel capacity in bps 3rd problem: Consider a communications channel with a bandwid

Amplitude Modulation

Amplitude modulation is obsolete but still in widespread use. a. A baseband sine wave signal with frequency 4.0 kHz is modulated onto a carrier at 1.050 MHz using DSB-LC AM. What are the frequencies of the sidebands of the RF signal? b. In part (a) above, what bandwidth is required to transmit the RF signal? c.

Frequency Modulation

Double sideband suppressed carrier AM (DSB-SC AM) is used in the transmission of stereo signals in sound broadcasting using frequency modulation. The transmitted stereo signal is a voltage proportional to L-R, where L and R are the left and right audio signals. a. A DSB-SC AM waveform is generated by modulating a 38 kHz carr

Modulation of the NTSC TV signal and questions around DSB-LC FM

The NTSC television signal format uses frequency modulation of a 4.5 MHz sub carrier to attach the TV audio signal to the baseband video signal which extends from 0 Hz to 4.2 MHz. The maximum frequency of the baseband audio signal is 10 KHz and the bandwidth allocated to the FM audio signal is 100 kHz. a. What is the peak fr

Analysis of bandwidth of an amplifier and output power signal

An audio amplifier has the following frequency response (transfer function): At 20 Hz, gain = 30 dB. At 60 Hz, gain = 37 dB. At 120 Hz, gain = 40 dB. At 10,000 Hz, gain = 40 dB. At 12,000 Hz, gain = 37 dB. At 16,000 Hz, gain = 30 dB. The gain of the amplifier is constant from 120 Hz to 10 kHz at 40 dB. a. Wh

PLC interface question

5 (d) The circuit shown in FIGURE 3 is part of the interface of a relay output module. Ib is 1 mA and Vcc is 9 V. The relay requires a minimum of 50 mA to energise. Complete the values of the assumptions listed below in order to calculate: • Voltage across R1 • value of Ri • voltage across the relay coil • voltag

Convert the following numbers to dB with the correct dB units

Convert the following numbers to dB with the correct dB units a. A transmitter power of 250 watts b. A received power of 2 x 10^6 watts c. A noise temperature of 100 K d. A bandwidth of 4.0 MHz e. A radio receiver has a noise power N = kTB watts, with T = 100 K and B = 1.0 MHz. The value of k is 1.38 x 10^

Moore sequential circuit

A Moore sequential circuit has one input and one output.The output goes to 1 when the input sequence 111 has occurred and the output goes to 0 if the input sequence 000 occurs. At all other times, the output holds its value. Example: X 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

Analysis of discrete time waveforms in z domain

A discrete time domain signal x(n) - u(n) - u(n-10) is decomposed and plotted. It is then examined in the z domian by appropriate transformation and algebraic manipulation. From the z transform representation the poles and zeros are determined and plotted in the z domain

From a given z transform X(z) = {1- z^-10}/{1 - z^-1} the discrete time domain form x(n) is deduced using complex manipulation and inverse transforms to arrive at x(n) = x(n-1) + u(n) - u(n-10) The second part shows how to convert the given X(z) into a polynomial in z as X(z) = 1 + z^-1 + z^-2 + .... + z^-9 Finally the third part goes on to show the poles and zeros of X(z) and plot these in the complex z plane as zeros , z(n) = 0.2n*pi, magnitude 1, Poles at 0

From a given z transform X(z) = {1- z^-10}/{1 - z^-1} the discrete time domain form x(n) is deduced using complex manipulation and inverse transforms to arrive at x(n) = x(n-1) + u(n) - u(n-10) The second part shows how to convert the given X(z) into a polynomial in z as X(z) = 1 + z^-1 + z^-2 + .... + z^-9 Finally the th

Mapping of Poles Into Complex Z and W (Laplace) Planes

Given poles(in complex notation) are mapped to both the z and s (Laplace) planes. The transforms between the different planes are developed and the mappings grpahically shown for a number of examples. See the attached file.

Safety, and Reliability Concerns and Risk

1(a) Are safety and reliability concerns more or less important in an embedded application when compared to a non-embedded system? Why or why not? 1(b) What is risk? Give several examples of low and high risk embedded applications. Identify several embedded applications that may either be high or low risk depending on their o

Digital Circuits in Counters

a) A 4 bit binary up/down counter is set to zero. if the down mode is selected and five clock pulse applied, the counter value will be? b) A production plant has a requirement for a counter that will count 4,000 times before recycling and starting over. How many flip flpos are required?