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PLC and Circuit Diagrams

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(d) The circuit shown in FIGURE 3 is part of the interface of a relay output module. Ib is 1 mA and Vcc is 9 V. The relay requires a minimum of 50 mA to energise.
Complete the values of the assumptions listed below in order to calculate:

• Voltage across R1 • value of Ri • voltage across the relay coil • voltage across R2 • value of R2 • collector of current

Logic '1' = V Logic '0' = V
Transistor forward current gain h_i_e = LED current = 10 mA
LED voltage drop at 10 mA = V Base/emitter voltage = V Collector emitter voltage when transistor is on = 1 V

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Ladder Logic Exercise

Please redraw the equivalent ladder logic diagram used to implement the hardwired circuit drawn in figure 5-48 (see attachment), wired using:
a. A limit switch with a single NO contact connected to the PLC input module.
b. A limit switch with a single NC contact connected to the PLC input module.

Assuming the hardwired circuit drawn in Figure 5-49 (see attachment) is to be implemented using a PLC program, identify all devices that could be programmed using internal relay instructions.

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