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# Electrical Engineering

### Calculating Path Loss, RF Power and Bit Rates

A microwave line of sight link transmits a 10.0 GHz signal a distance of 25 km across a river estuary. The transmitter delivers 2 W to the transmitting antenna. The antennas at each end of the link have a gain of 36 dB. The receiver has a noise bandwidth of 20 MHz with rms noise power of -120.0 dBW. The transmitter and receiver

### Speech/Video Compression techniques.

1. Name two techniques that are used to compress digital speech, and the resulting compressed speech bit rates. 2. Name two techniques used to compress digital video. Why is compression particularly important for the transmission of digital video signals? 3. What is the modulation used to transmit HDTV signals over the ai

### Music signal transmission over a digital radio link and its processing requirements for reception.

A music signal has a bandwidth of 50 Hz to 10 kHz. The signal is sampled, converted to a serial bit stream, transmitted over a digital radio link, and recovered as an analog signal at the receiver. a. What is the sampling rate for this signal if sampling occurs at 1.2 times the Nyquist rate? b. The ADC used at the transmi

### Improving Memory Systems Reductions

Please provide a detailed step by step solution. An embedded application requires a certain level of overall performance and after the first design phase is completed, it is evident that the chosen processing system is inadequate and needed to achieve an overall improvement in speed of at least 20%. The designers then looked

### Op-Amp THS4021

FIGURE 2(a) shows the Bode plot of op-amp THS4021. The manufacturer describes this device as a ââ?¬Ë?decompensated op-ampââ?¬â?¢, by which is meant that the frequency compensation is partial as opposed to ââ?¬Ë?uncompensatedââ?¬â?¢ where no compensation is used at all. The advantages of ââ?¬Ë?decompensa

### TDMA operation and analysis of given system

This question uses part of the FDMA question that has also been assigned (#434455). The earth station in Question #1 transmits a digital data signal with a bit rate of 10 Mbps into a TDMA frame in a second transponder on the same GEO satellite. The transponder has a bandwidth of 36 MHz. The earth station modulation is

### Why is a spreading code used in a CDMA radio system?

A terrestrial radio link transmits a CDMA signal from a base station using a spreading code with a chip rate of 1.0 Mchips per seconds. The message data rate of the signal is 10 kbps. a. Why is a spreading code used in a CDMA radio system? b. What is the coding gain of the correlator in a CDMA receiver when it is synchroni

### A data transmission system transmits data at 0.772 Mbps over a twisted pair cable. The line is equalized such that the transfer function of the line from 0 Hz to 500 kHz has constant attenuation and linear phase shift with frequency. The transmitter and receiver have ideal baseband RRC filters with filter Rolloff = 0.25. At the receiving terminal the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is 14.0 dB and the receiver has an implementation margin of 0.4 dB. a. What is the maximum symbol rate for this link and the number of bits per symbol? What format would you recommend for the transmitted current pulses on this baseband link? b. Find the BER at the receiver output and the average time between errors. c. Rain occasionally seeps into one of the junction boxes on the line causing an increase in noise. SNR falls to 11.0 dB, What is the bit error rate and the time between errors now? d. The bit rate on the link needs to be increased to a T1 rate of 1.544 Mbps. What change must be made to the transmitted signal?

A data transmission system transmits data at 0.772 Mbps over a twisted pair cable. The line is equalized such that the transfer function of the line from 0 Hz to 500 kHz has constant attenuation and linear phase shift with frequency. The transmitter and receiver have ideal baseband RRC filters with filter rolloff = 0.25. At

A terrestrial radio link is used to send digital data over a long distance. The RF channel has a bandwidth of 250 kHz. The transmitter and receiver have ideal RRC filters with Rolloff = 0.25. a. What is: i. The maximum symbol rate that can transmitted over this link without ISI? ii. The bit rate with QPSK modulation?

### A low definition television signal is transmitted over a radio link using frequency modulation. The baseband video signal extends from 0 Hz to 1.0 MHz, and the signal voltage varies between 0 V and +1V. The modulation constant of the transmitter is 1 MHz per volt. The following are answered a. What is the peak frequency deviation of the FM signal and bandwidth of the FM signal? b. The signal is received with CNR = 30.0 dB. What is the SNR of the recovered video signal at the radio receiver output? c. The signal could have been sent using DSB-LC modulation. What bandwidth would be required to transmit the signal with DSB-LC? d. Give two reasons why FM is used in this application rather than AM

A low definition television signal is transmitted over a radio link using frequency modulation. The baseband video signal extends from 0 Hz to 1.0 MHz, and the signal voltage varies between 0 V and +1V. The modulation constant of the transmitter is 1 MHz per volt. a. What is the peak frequency deviation of the FM signal and

### A single hop microwave line of sight link transmits a 16-QAM signal in clear air conditions at a bit rate of 40 Mbps. The transmitter and receiver have ideal RRC filters with Rolloff = 0.5. The receiver has an implementation margin of 1.0 dB. The following are addressed to find a. What is the symbol rate and what is the bandwidth occupied by the 16-QAM signal? b. The link must maintain a BER no higher than 10^-6. What is the minimum CNR in the receiver to meet this requirement? c. When rain causes attenuation on the link the BER will eventually increase to 10^-6. The modulation at the transmitter automatically changes to QPSK, and the bit rate is reduced. What is the new bit rate on the link. d. How much additional rain attenuation can occur when the link is using QPSK modulation, compared to 16-QAM?

A single hop microwave line of sight link transmits a 16-QAM signal in clear air conditions at a bit rate of 40 Mbps. The transmitter and receiver have ideal RRC filters with Ã?± = 0.5. The receiver has an implementation margin of 1.0 dB. a. What is the symbol rate and what is the bandwidth occupied by the 16-QAM signal?

### MATLAB Problem for Temperature Measuring system

Please see attachment. Only need to do letter (B) and (C) and include MATLAB CODE.

### Frequency Modulation

Double sideband suppressed carrier AM (DSB-SC AM) is used in the transmission of stereo signals in sound broadcasting using frequency modulation. The transmitted stereo signal is a voltage proportional to L-R, where L and R are the left and right audio signals. a. A DSB-SC AM waveform is generated by modulating a 38 kHz carr

### Modulation of the NTSC TV signal and questions around DSB-LC FM

The NTSC television signal format uses frequency modulation of a 4.5 MHz sub carrier to attach the TV audio signal to the baseband video signal which extends from 0 Hz to 4.2 MHz. The maximum frequency of the baseband audio signal is 10 KHz and the bandwidth allocated to the FM audio signal is 100 kHz. a. What is the peak fr

### Digital Telephony and estimating performance parameters of the Digitsl PCM E1 telephony link

The European E1 digital telephone system transmits at 2048 kbps and the DS-1 system carries data signals in the US at 1.544 Mbps. a. How many voice channels are carried by a E1 transmission given 8 kHz sampling and 8 bit words? b. Why is an end of frame marker always required in a digital telephony system? c. What is the t

### A spectrum analyzer is connected to an unknown signal. The spectrum analyzer displays the power level of signals in dBm vertically and frequency horizontally. The spectrum of the unknown signal creates the following display: A continuous spectrum that is completely filled so no lines are visible. The spectrum has a sin X / X (sinc X) shape. The spectrum has maximum power spectral density at 0 Hz and falls to zero at 2 kHz, 4 kHz, 6 kHz and other even kHz frequencies. a. What is the input waveform? b. Is the input signal periodic or non-periodic? c. What is the pulse width? d. If the spectrum suddenly changes to have zeroes at 5 kHz, 10 kHz, 15 kHz, etc, what is the new pulse width?

A spectrum analyzer is connected to an unknown signal. The spectrum analyzer displays the power level of signals in dBm vertically and frequency horizontally. The spectrum of the unknown signal creates the following display: A continuous spectrum that is completely filled so no lines are visible. The spectrum has a sin X

### Analysis of bandwidth of an amplifier and output power signal

An audio amplifier has the following frequency response (transfer function): At 20 Hz, gain = 30 dB. At 60 Hz, gain = 37 dB. At 120 Hz, gain = 40 dB. At 10,000 Hz, gain = 40 dB. At 12,000 Hz, gain = 37 dB. At 16,000 Hz, gain = 30 dB. The gain of the amplifier is constant from 120 Hz to 10 kHz at 40 dB. a. Wh

### PLC interface question

5 (d) The circuit shown in FIGURE 3 is part of the interface of a relay output module. Ib is 1 mA and Vcc is 9 V. The relay requires a minimum of 50 mA to energise. Complete the values of the assumptions listed below in order to calculate: • Voltage across R1 • value of Ri • voltage across the relay coil • voltag

### Convert the following numbers to dB with the correct dB units

Convert the following numbers to dB with the correct dB units a. A transmitter power of 250 watts b. A received power of 2 x 10^6 watts c. A noise temperature of 100 K d. A bandwidth of 4.0 MHz e. A radio receiver has a noise power N = kTB watts, with T = 100 K and B = 1.0 MHz. The value of k is 1.38 x 10^

### Moore sequential circuit

A Moore sequential circuit has one input and one output.The output goes to 1 when the input sequence 111 has occurred and the output goes to 0 if the input sequence 000 occurs. At all other times, the output holds its value. Example: X 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

### A two part question and solution PART1 Finding the periodicity in N of the discrete time signal x(n) = Cos(3pi*Ts.n + pi/4) and then plotting the discrete signal. From this the condition on the sampling period is determined PART2 It is shown also how to determine the z transform of the composite discrete time signal given by y(n) = y(n-1) -0.5*y(n-2) +x(n) + x(n-1) From this the output function due to a step input x(n) = u(n) = 1 is determined as Y(z) = z^2*(z + 1)/{(z - 1)*(z^2 - z + 0.5)} Further it is shown how to do the partial expansion of Y(z) into its partial fractions. From this the inverse z transform to find the output in the time domain due to the step input is determined

two part question and solution PART1 Finding the periodicity in N of the discrete time signal x(n) = Cos(3pi*Ts.n + pi/4) and then plotting the discrete signal. From this the condition on the sampling period is determined PART2 It is shown also how to determine the z transform of the composite discrete time signal given

### From a given z transform X(z) = {1- z^-10}/{1 - z^-1} the discrete time domain form x(n) is deduced using complex manipulation and inverse transforms to arrive at x(n) = x(n-1) + u(n) - u(n-10) The second part shows how to convert the given X(z) into a polynomial in z as X(z) = 1 + z^-1 + z^-2 + .... + z^-9 Finally the third part goes on to show the poles and zeros of X(z) and plot these in the complex z plane as zeros , z(n) = 0.2n*pi, magnitude 1, Poles at 0

From a given z transform X(z) = {1- z^-10}/{1 - z^-1} the discrete time domain form x(n) is deduced using complex manipulation and inverse transforms to arrive at x(n) = x(n-1) + u(n) - u(n-10) The second part shows how to convert the given X(z) into a polynomial in z as X(z) = 1 + z^-1 + z^-2 + .... + z^-9 Finally the th

### Safety, and Reliability Concerns and Risk

1(a) Are safety and reliability concerns more or less important in an embedded application when compared to a non-embedded system? Why or why not? 1(b) What is risk? Give several examples of low and high risk embedded applications. Identify several embedded applications that may either be high or low risk depending on their o

### Damping factor, Damped frequency, Natural frequency

For the waveform shown in attached figure, estimate (a) the damping factor, (b) the forced or damped frequency of oscillation, and (c) the natural or undamped frequency.

### Pseudo Code

Write the pseudocode for a program that does the following: The user is prompted to enter an integer between 1 and 1000. When the user enters the integer, the program uses a repetition control structure to validate whether the integer is within the proper range; otherwise, the prompt is continuously redisplayed to the user un

### Sampling rate, Systems function, Region of convergence

** Please see the attached file for the complete problem description ** 1. If the -3dB cut-off point for the filter shown (in the attachment) occurs for a real frequency of 200Hz then what should be the sampling rate (samples per sec)? 2. The difference equation for a digital filter is given by: y(n) = 2y(n-1) + y(n-2) + x

### Methods used to eliminate noise from a spatio-temporal signal

Name and describe, in detail, 2 methods used to eliminate noise from a (spatio-temporal) signal. This question requires a clear, detailed explanation of the methods. Mathematical equations can/should be minimized. The application under consideration are signals from an EEG or MEG reading.

### S-R flipflops have a forbidden state that makes them hard to use.

S-R flipflops have a forbidden state that makes them hard to use. Some designers switched to the following flipflop instead. Fill in the timing diagram shown. Then, describe what the flipflop does in each of the cases of M and N (i.e explain what the output does for each combination of the inputs). Note that filling in this timi

### This is a Java application that prints out numbers.

Write a Java application that prints out numbers 2, 4 and 6 in row 1, numbers 3, 5 and 7 in row 2, numbers 8, 10 and 12 in row 3 and numbers 9, 11 and 13 in row 4. There should be an underline followed by a row of numbers that adds the numbers in the respective columns. The program should print out the information as follows:

### System analysis and design

Elmwood College Situation: The school is considering a new system that will speed up the registration process. As a systems analyst, you are asked to develop a plan for fact-finding. a. List all the possible techniques that you might use. b. Describe an advantage for each technique. c. Suppose the development budget is t