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Agency problem

How does the agency problem affect accountants? How has SOX changed the situation?

Business law: Joe's Pizzeria and Sub Shack agreement to purchase adjoining lot

Joe's Pizzeria and Sub Shack wishes to expand its restaurant and enters into an agreement with the owner of the adjoining lot, Sam Seller, to purchase the land and begin construction. A condition precedent to the contract is Joe's ability to obtain financing from First Bank. Joe dutifully applies for the construction loan, but,

Which one of the following is among the three components of audit risk? a. incurrence risk b. occurrence risk c. rejection risk d. control risk 2. The Hochfelder Case is important because it limited auditor liability under: a. the 1933 Securities Act. b. the 1934 Securities Exchange Act. c. common law. d. RICO. 3. Which of the following is an INCORRECT statement concerning one of the field work standards? a. Audit planning includes the development of audit strategies. b. Audit planning is aimed primarily at effectiveness, with little effect on efficiency. c. Understanding of the internal control structure is necessary in order to plan the audit. d. The auditor must have a reasonable basis, in the form of gathered evidence, for expressing an opinion. 4. An auditor would be most likely to issue a "summary of findings" in connection with which one of the following types of services? a. a financial statement audit b. consulting services c. an operational audit d. a review 5. Making sure that the detail of and accounts receivable file agrees with the general ledger before the file is used to produce confirmations is an example of which of the following audit procedures? a. Confirmation. b. Recalculation. c. Reperformance. d. Vouching. 6. The auditor has some control over: a. the assessed level of inherent risk. b. the actual level of inherent risk. c. both the actual level and the assessed levels of inherent risk. d. neither the actual level nor the assessed level of inherent risk. 7. Concerning such matters as the integrity of management, errors, and illegal acts, the auditor should plan the audit with an attitude of: a. cautious mistrust. b. professional skepticism. c. seasoned pessimism. d. adversarial pursuit. 8. Incompatible duties are those that allow an irregularity to be perpetrated: a. and concealed by a single employee. b. and concealed through collusive actions. c. by a single employee. d. by accounting personnel. 9. In making judgments about materiality at the account balance level, the auditor must consider the relationship between it and financial statement materiality. This should lead the auditor to plan the audit to detect misstatements that: a. are individually material to the statements taken as a whole. b. are individually immaterial to the statements taken as a whole. c. may be immaterial individually, but may aggregate with misstatements in other accounts to a material level. d. bring the cumulative total of known misstatements to the level of materiality established by management. 10. Which one of the following is NOT an inherent limitation in an entity's internal controls? a. mistakes in judgment b. collusion c. cost versus market d. breakdowns 11. Use of auditor judgment or of a risk matrix is necessary in revising planned detection risk whenever: a. risk assessments are not quantified. b. assessed control risk at the account balance level does not support the planned level of control risk. c. control risk is assessed above the minimum. d. control risk is assessed below the maximum. 12. The auditor has decided to use PPS sampling in the confirmation of individual sales transactions with customers. The population and the logical sampling unit are most likely to be, respectively: a. all customer accounts and the individual dollars in the accounts. b. customer accounts with debit balances and individual dollars in the accounts. c. the sales invoice file and the individual dollars on the invoices. d. all recorded sales during the year and individual sales invoices. 13. Which of the following is NOT considered an access control? a. the use of a librarian b. management review of computer utilization reports c. parity check d. the use of passwords 14. Which of the following is NOT an element of a computer-based system? a. software b. data c. procedures d. organizational personnel 15. The use of computer systems in accounting creates more areas where errors can occur. Which of the following should be of most concern? a. errors on customer invoices b. customer credit reports c. conversion of source data to computer-readable format d. accounts receivable master file Fill in the Blank - Type your response after the question Point Value: .25 each 16. Differences exist between the Securities Act of 1933 and 1934. More cases have been brought against auditors under the 1934 Act because it applies to annual filings and: 17. The type of risk that is independent of the audit of the financial statements and therefore cannot be changed is: 18. Occasionally, employees will work together to conceal fraud. This is known as: 19. Sometimes the auditor does not have the book value of the individual items in the sample. In this case, the sampling technique to be used is: 20. According to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the establishment and maintenance of internal controls is the responsibility of: True or False - Highlight those statements which are TRUE Point Value: .25 each 21. The fact that a company's management does not place a high priority on the entity's values creates a high-risk condition. 22. The AICPA provides a broad range of services to its members and the accounting profession. Membership into this organization is mandatory for Certified Public Accountants. 23. In order to fully understand the internal controls of an organization, the auditor must consider circumstances and judgment. 24. The steps for assessing the risk of material misstatement in the financial statements include evaluating the types of misstatements that might occur and evaluating the likelihood and magnitude of potential misstatements. 25. Computer abuse and computer fraud essentially mean the same thing. 26. A CPA Risk Advisory service consists of decision makers who are not a member of management or a board of directors. 27. Internal control can provide absolute assurance to a company's management and board of directors regarding the entity's ability to achieve objectives. 28. The auditor has a responsibility to determine if substantial doubt exists, as of the date of the audit report, regarding the entity's ability to continue as a going concern for the following year. 29 (skip) 30. What is generalized audit software? What are the tasks for which auditors would use it? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using generalized audit software? Will this software be more appropriate for auditing your organization's computer information system, or would it be necessary to develop customized audit software? What type of software will work best for your work environment? Please explain. 31. What is the difference between assurance and attestation services? Please provide examples of each. 32. Is it probable that the use of information technology will eventually eliminate the audit trail, making it impossible to trace individual transactions from their origin to the summary total on the financial statements? Please explain. How do the AICPA and the PCAOB want the auditor to address controls in the light of this technological shift? 33. What are internal controls? Why are they importa

1. Which one of the following is among the three components of audit risk? a. incurrence risk b. occurrence risk c. rejection risk d. control risk 2. The Hochfelder Case is important because it limited auditor liability under: a. the 1933 Securities Act. b. the 1934 Securities Exchange Act. c. common law. d. RICO.

law of one price

A logical starting point for understanding how exchange rates are determined is a simple idea called ___________, which states that if two countries produce an identical good, the price of the good should be the same throughout the world no matter which country produces it. Gresham's law the law of one price

EPA aerial photographs

Dow chemical company operated a 2,000-acre chemical manufacturing facility at Midland, Michigan. The facility consisted of numerous covered buildings, with manufacturing equipment and piping conduits between various buildings plainly visible from the air. Dow maintained elaborate security around the perimeter of the complex to

The Details of SOX and Who it Affects

What organizations are subject to Sarbanes-Oxley? What provisions affect these organizations most? How could Sarbanes-Oxley requirements drive a business to become de-listed from stock exchanges and no longer operate as a publicly traded company? How do other regulations similar to Sarbanes-Oxley apply to government entities or

Whether freedom of speech is revocable in the private sector will be discussed. A scenerio regarding a co-working using profanity will be discussed and analyzed. Whether he has the right to speak in this way in the private sector will be explained.

The First Amendment guarantees our freedom of speech. However, this amendment only applies to government (state or federal) agencies and does not apply to employees in the private sector. Employees do not have the right to discuss non-work related issues and expect the same protections. For example, a coworker routinely uses

Stock-Appreciation Rights

Derrick Company establishes a stock-appreciation rights program that entitles its new president Dan Scott to receive cash for the difference between the market price of the stock and a pre-established price of $30 (also market price) on December 31, 2008, on 40,000 SARs. The date of grand is December 31, 2008, and the required

The case of the speluncean explorers

Judge: Handy, J. (What did the judge decide? What was His Opinion? What law he use--which "schools" of law: Natural law, Positivist view, Historical view, or Legal Realism view.? Did it change society?)

Tax Laws and Renewable Energy

Elaborate and discuss the role and impact the tax laws have made or could make in motivating and encouraging the shift towards the use of renewable energy and enhancement of green technology more effectively.

Business Law

Marianne Jennings wrote an article, "Why an International Code of Ethics would be good," which was assigned to be read at the beginning of the course. As you have worked throughout this session, you should have considered this article and how it may or may not have impacted different situations in the world economic/business/leg

Breach of contract: Use of specific perfomance as a remedy

In most cases, the remedy for a breach of contract is monetary damages (actual losses). In some cases, "specific performance" is the appropriate remedy. What is specific performance, why would the aggrieved part want it, and when would a court require specific performance?

Donny's interest in a client company

Donny's ownership of an interest in a client company is definitely a problem. Even though the stock purchase was made through completely legal means, and by using no insider information, it still can present a host of problems. The main problem is that since he owns stock in the company, he has personal gain considered based on

Business contract transaction with which you are familiar...

Can you help me get started with this assignment? Select a business contract transaction with which you are familiar. You may use a transaction in your workplace, or in a place where you have been a consumer, such as buying auto insurance, renting or purchasing a residence, or buying cell phones or computers. What are the

Procurement and Contract Management - Negotiation

In reviewing the proven best practices for the contract negotiation process, which portion of the process would be the most difficult to carry out--planning, conducting, or documenting and forming the contract? Which would be the least difficult? Is one portion more critical than the others? Justify your answers.

AstraZeneca versus the People

Beginning in the 1990s, with their research pipelines drying up, the major players in the pharmaceutical industry moved to sustain profits by fighting to extend patent periods, by advertising direct-to-consumers, and by raising drug prices. The facts of a case filed recently in California reflect a blend of these strategies: As

Adherence of a corporation to their oaths or codes

Creative Code: We the members of the American Association of Advertising Agencies, in addition to supporting and obeying the laws of legal regulations pertaining to advertising, undertake to extend and broaden the application of high ethical standards. Specifically, we will not knowingly create advertising that contains: Fal

Sources of Tax Law...

Answer the following questions concerning the sources of tax law. a. What role does the Internal Revenue Service play in interpreting, and providing guidance on, the tax law? What types of tax law guidance are published by the IRS? b. What roles do the U.S. Constitution and U.S. Congress play in creating the tax law? Brief

Law - Conditions can be only:

Conditions can be only: A. precedent. B. subsequent. C. precedent or subsequent. D. precedent, subsequent, or concurrent. E. precedent, subsequent, concurrent, or nominal.