Consider the following approximate figures relating to cigarette smoking and cancer. The death rate in the US population of 260 million is 12 deaths per 1000 persons per year. One-fifth of these deaths are from cancer and one-fourth of the cancer deaths are from lung cancer. Ninety percent of the lung cancer deaths occur among t
The rate of a particular reaction triples when the temprature is increased from 25C to 35C. Calculate the activation energy for this reaction. Also i just need to clearify the concept of Arrhenius Equation. What happened to Rate Constant(k) and the rate of reaction if: a. there is a decrease in temperature b. an increase in
2 The following table gives some results from experiments in which the current efficiency of zinc deposition in an electrowinning operation was determined at various current densities (amperes per square meter of cathode surface area). The cathode area at the plant is 10,000 m2. Current Density C
One of the most important products that we have in our daily diet is sugar. The main type of sugar that we use is sucrose, which is a disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose. The hydrolysis of sucrose to produce glucose and fructose occurs by the following overall reaction: C12H22O11(s) + H2O(l) yields C6H12O6(aq) + C
1. The numerical value of the rate constant for the gaseous reaction 2N2O5 reacts to form 4No2 + O2 was found to be 5.80 times 10 exp -4. The initial concentration of N2O5 was 1.00 mol/L. Assuming all measurements are recorded in seconds, determine the time required for the reaction to be 60% complete. 2. Re
With the starting reagents of benzyl chloride and a solvent (water), what is the rate limiting step in the solvolysis reactions: a. Solubility of the alkyl halide b. Formation of the carbocation c. Reaction of the carbocation with water d. Removal of a proton from alkyloxonium ion
Because the time it takes for a reaction to actually reach equilibrium is infinite, scientists have used the estimate that after ten half-lives (or ten half-times) the reaction is completed (i.e., the reaction has reached equilibrium). Chlorine gas and solid sodium metal react to produce sodium chloride. If you place one mole
Kc for the reaction below at 25°C is 4.8 x 10-6. Calculate the equilibrium concentration (mol/L) of Cl2(g) if the initial concentration of ICl(g) is 1.33 mol/L. There is no I2 or Cl2 initially present. 2ICl(g) <-> I2(g) + Cl2(g) a. 6.4 x 10-6
1. The relationship between the rate constants for the forward and reverse reactions and the equilibrium constant for a process is K = ____________. a. kf/kr b. kfkr c. kf+kr d. kf-kr e. 1/(kfkr) 2. Consider the following equilibrium. 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g) From which of the following starting conditions would
1) Calculate the mole fraction of methanol (CH OH) in a mixture of equal masses of methanol and water. 2) Calculate the molar concentration of chloride ions in a solution prepared by dissolving 454g of CaCl in water and diluting to 500mL. 3) At 25 degrees Celcius calcium chloride has a solubi
Acetaldehyde can undergo catalytic decomposition according to the mechanism below: CH3CHO + I2 = CH3I + HI + CO (RDS) CH3I + HI = CH4 + I2 Use the mechanism to determine: a. the overall chemical equation b the catalyst c the intermediates d. the rate law
A certain pesticide is fatal to fish fingerlings at a level of 0.5 parts per million in water. A leaking metal can containing 2.0 kg of the pesticide was dumped into a stream with a flow of 10.0 Liters per second moving at 1.9 km/hr. The container leaks pesticide at a constant rate of 5.0 mg/sec. For what distance (in km) downst
The equation for the reaction between iodide and bromate in acidic solution is 6I-(aq) + BrO3-(aq) + 6H+(aq) ---> 3I2(aq) + Br-(aq) + 3H2O The rate of the reaction is followed by measuring the appearance of I2. The following data are obtained. [I-] [BrO3-] [H+] Initial Rate (mo
NO is reduced by hydrogen to give N (g) & H2O vapor. One possible mechanism to account for this reaction is: Step 1: 2NO (g)<---> N2O2 (g) Step 2: N2O2 (g) + H2 (g) --> N2O (g) + H2O (g) Step 3: N2O (g) + H2 (g) --> N2 (g) + H2O (g) Determine the net reaction, the molecularity of each step and assuming step 3 is rate li
If you had the follwing two oxides: Hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite(Fe3O4) How would you conduct a simple experiment to show the different oxides of Iron? Thank you so much! PS. In my lab, we just did an experiment with AL and two different unknown Copper oxides: Cu2O and CuO. We were given one of the unknown copper oxid
The rate constant for the reaction Cl+ Cl3CH-> HCl + CCl3 is 5.8E+7M to the negative 1 s to the negative 1 at 25 degrees C and has an activation energy of 11.0KJoule/mol. Calculate the rate constant for this reaction in the lower stratosphere where the temperature is -57 degrees C. Show all work and steps to the problem.
For the reaction BrO3- + 5 Br- + 6 H+ ---> 3 Br2 + 3 H2O at a particular time, -/[BrO3-]// t = 1.5 10-2 M/s. What is -/[Br-]//t at the same instant? Question 2 Question: The reaction A + 2 B ---> products has been found to have the rate law, rate = k [A]
At combustion temperatures, the equilibrium constant for the reaction N2 + O2 -> 2NO is about 5.0*10^-14. Calculate the concentration of nitric oxide that is in equilibrium with atmospheric levels of nitrogen and oxygen.
The Arrhenius equation relates reaction rates to temperature via the activation energy. Calculate the ratio of the rates at -30 degrees C (a typical stratospheric temperature) for two biomolecular reactions having the same Arrhenius A factor and initial concentrations , one of which is endothermic and has an activation energy of
Please explain how to reach 1st, 2nd, 3rd order and the rate law: What do they mean? How do I reach them? Differential, not integrated).
Please show all work and keep things as simple as possible in the following three problems on chemistry and its rate mechanisms. The Rate Law. 1) A possible mechanism for the reaction between H2 and CO is shown below, where RDS is the rate-determining step. What is the rate law for the overall reaction? H2 ? 2 H
Please explain each step and label what each variable in an equation stands for. This class is second half of first year general chem so please to not get too advanced. Thanks Average Rate of Reaction. The initial concentration of butyl chloride is 0.1000 M. What is the average rate of reaction if the chemical reaction be
Chemists commonly use a rule of thumb that an increase of 10 K in temperature doubles the rate of a reaction. What must the activation energy be for this statement to be true for a temperature increase from 49 to 59°C?
The reaction A produces B + C is known to be zero order in A and to have a rate constant of 5.0 x 10 superscript-2 mol/L x sec. @ 25 degrees C. An experiment was run at 25 degrees C where [A]0 = 1.0 x 10 superscript-3 M. a) Write the integrated law for this reaction b) Calculate the half-life for this reaction c) Calculate
1) The reaction 2NO(g) + Cl2 produces 2NOCl(g) was studied at -10 degrees C. The following results were obtained Rate = Delta[Cl2] over Delta t. [NO]0 (mol/L) 0.10, 0.10, 1.20 [Cl2]0 (mol/L) 0.10, 0.20, 0.20 Initial Rate(mol/L*min) 0.18, 0.36, 1.45 a) What is rate law? b) What is the value of the rate constant?
The activation energy of a certain reaction is 76.7 kj/mol. How many times faster will the reaction occur at 62 degrees C than at 5 degrees C?
If 4.83 ml of an unknown gas effuses through a hole in a plate in the same time it takes 9.23 ml of Argon to effuse through the same whole under the same conditions, what is the molecular weight of the unknown gas?
The decomposition of benzene diazonium chloride (C6H5N2Cl, molar mass = 141 g/mol) at 50 degrees Celsius follows the first order kinetics rate law with the reaction equation: C6H5N2Cl-->C6H5Cl + N2, and has a half-life of 10.8 minutes. Exactly one liter of a solution of 10.0 g/L of benzene diazonium chloride is reacted and the g
Into a thoroughly washed and dried Erlenmeyer flask, place the required amount of H2C2O4 and any distilled water. The amounts are dictated by the experiment that you are doing. Reagents exp.1 exp. 2 exp.3 H2C2O4 20.00ml 20.00ml 10.00ml KMnO4 10.00ml 5.00ml 10.00ml H2O 0.00 ml
Ammonia gas at 223 deg C and 90. atm flows into a reactor at a rate of 500. L/min. Carbon dioxide at 223 deg C and 47 atm flows into the reactor at a rate of 600. L/min. What mass of urea is produced per minute by this reaction assuming 100% yield?